Crisis of 1928
|Crisis of 1928|
|Ծրիսիս դե 1928 – Crisis de 1928|
Part of the Reigns of Terrors and the Creeperian Conflicts
|Date||31 December 1927 – 19 April 1928|
(3 months, 2 weeks and 5 days)
|Parties to the civil conflict|
|Casualties and losses|
The Crisis of 1928 (Creeperian Spanish – Creeperian: Ծրիսիս դե 1928; Creeperian Spanish – Iberic: Crisis de 1928) was a period of social and political instability in Creeperopolis in the early months of 1928. The months of January to April 1928 witnessed several political assassinations, protests, riots, and street clashes, all related to the politics of the Second Parliamentary Era.
The crisis emerged upon the beginning of the Premiership of Édgar Cazalla Beldad, the leader of the Creeperian Socialist Party (PSC). His Premiership was protested by the Creeperian Conservative Coalition, most notably, the far-right political parties of the Catholic Royalist Party (PRC) and the Creeperian Pro-Fatherland Front (FPPC). The paramilitary wing of the Creeperian Pro-Fatherland Front, the Camisas Negras, assassinated Cazalla Beldad on 7 February and Antonio Sáenz Heredia, the leader of the Catholic Royalist Party, declared himself Provisional Prime Minister. The assassination of Cazalla Beldad and the declaration of Sáenz Heredia were protested by the People's Social Coalition, most notably, the far-left Creeperian Social Communist Party (PCSC).
In retaliation for the assassination, the paramilitary wing of the Creeperian Social Communist Party, the Atheist Red Army, assassinated Gustavo López Dávalos, a vocal opponent of Cazalla Beldad and the CEO of the National Coffee and Sugar Corporation, which had come under fire by Cazalla Beldad's Premiership. His assassination on 23 February was protested by the Creeperian Conservative Coalition, and especially by Sáenz Heredia, since López Dávalos was an important ally. He ordered the Falange Creeperiano, the paramilitary wing of the Catholic Royalist Party, to assassinate Joel Lacasa Campos, the leader of the Creeperian Social Communist Party and the then Prime Minister of Creeperopolis, and Cayetano Handel Carpio, the leader of the Atheist Red Army. Lacasa Campos was assassinated on 1 March, as was the family of Handel Carpio, but he himself escaped assassination. Serafín Velázquez Andrade was installed as Acting Prime Minister until 2 March, when Tobías Gaos Nores of the National Liberal Party was installed as Prime Minister.
During March and April, protests and riots erupted against the Parliament over the political and social instability the country had found itself in. Many clashes between the Falange Creeperiano, Camisas Negras, and Atheist Red Army occurred and many civilians were killed in the unrest. Gaos Nores declared martial law on 4 March and had the Creeperian Army initiate a military occupation of the major cities of Creeperopolis and forcibly bring an end to the protests, riots, and street clashes, ending the crisis by mid-April.
The crisis was the most violent prolonged period of political instability in Creeperopolis which was not open warfare up to that point. The violence and extremely partisan politics of the crisis made voters turn on the four political parties involved, which led to massive victories for the National Liberal Party and National Conservative Party in the 1932 general election, as they had been uninvolved for the most part throughout the crisis. The crisis also put a dangerous belief in the minds of the Creeperian population, that violence was an effective way of ending political disputes, and consequently, indirectly lead to the beginning of the Creeperian Civil War, the deadliest war in history, in 1933.
- 1 Background
- 2 Chronology
- 3 Prime Minister vacancy votes
- 4 Aftermath
- 5 Legacy
- 6 In popular culture
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
Crises of 1923 and 1925
Antonio Sáenz Heredia became Prime Minister of Creeperopolis for his third term on 31 December 1922 after victory in the 1922 general election. He was the Caudillo, or leader, of the right-wing Catholic Royalist Party (PRC). He was already a controversial politician due to certain pieces of legislation he passed during his first term (1902–1907) which granted members of his political party immunity from prosecution, and due to his handling of the 1912–13 Creeperian protests against his government in which thirty-five people died during his second term (1912–1917).
In 1923, Carlos Hernández Videla, the leader of the Creeperian Pro-Fatherland Front (FPPC), was dissatisfied with his party's performance in the 1922 general election. He believed that democracy was not a feasible way for his party to gain absolute control of the Creeperian government and establish a fascist dictatorship. On 25 December 1923, he lead the Camisas Negras, the paramilitary of the Creeperian Pro-Fatherland Front, in a march on San Salvador to overthrow the government of Sáenz Heredia and establish himself as Caudillo of Creeperopolis. The march and coup attempt failed, however, as the Civil Police of Creeperopolis found out about the plan the day prior, and with the assistance of the Creeperian Army, managed to suppress the coup attempt and Hernández Videla was arrested. Around 4,000 paramilitary soldiers marched on the capital and faced off against around 12,000 police officers and soldiers, and after the end of the so-called Christmas Coup, thirty-five paramilitary troops and eleven government troops were killed and an additional 1,212 paramilitary troops were arrested. Hernández Videla was eventually released from prison on 25 February 1925 after being handed a very light sentence by a sympathetic judge. He later became a close ally of Sáenz Heredia after the mediation of Ramón Serrano Suñer, a prominent politician of the Catholic Royalist Party.
In 1925, Jorge González Marées, the leader of the Action Party for San Pedro (PASP), was inspired by Hernández Videla's march on San Salvador, and was a San Pedroan nationalist, he planned a plot to march on San Pedro and secure the independence of San Pedro. On 5 September 1925, González Marées lead 100 members of the Action Party for San Pedro on an attack on the capitol of the city. Mayor Humberto Arriagada Valdivieso called for the local Army garrison to suppress the attack, and the 270-strong garrison managed to suppress the attack, killed sixty men, and arrested the remaining forty, including González Marées. Sáenz Heredia demanded to have González Marées tried in San Salvador to prevent a similar occurrence from happening like that of Hernández Videla, but Arriagada Valdivieso refused to allow that and wanted him tried in San Pedro. The two compromised, and he was tried in San Pedro by judges from San Salvador. González Marées was found guilty of high treason, establishing and leading a criminal organization, murder, and manslaughter, and sentenced him to death by hanging. He was executed on 14 March 1926. Unlike the Creeperian Pro-Fatherland Front following the Christmas Coup, the Action Party for San Pedro was immediately banned following the San Pedro Incident.
The status of human rights in Creeperopolis has always been a cause of social and political tensions. During the 1800s and early 1900s, the biggest cause of such tensions, in regard to human rights, was in the regard of labor laws and working conditions. Several monopolies arose in Creeperopolis during the Adolfisto period of 1833 to 1887 under the reign of Emperor Adolfo III. After his death and the establishment of the Second Parliament, these monopolies continued existence and continued their practices.
During the Premierships of Inhué Ordóñez Yepes, Macos Espiga Mina, and Antonio Sáenz Heredia, little to nothing was done about the working conditions workers endured as all three had been heavily bribed by said monopolies to ignore the harsh working conditions. The most outspoken critics of such bribes and blatant corruption were Édgar Cazalla Beldad, the leader of the Creeperian Socialist Party (PSC), and Joel Lacasa Campos, the leader of the Creeperian Social Communist Party (PCSC). Both repeatedly called for the workers of Creeperopolis to strike against the monopolies and demand the government do something to ensure living wages and better working conditions for workers across the country. Throughout the 1910s and 1920s, support for both parties increased, and in the 1927 general election, Cazalla Beldad and the Creeperian Socialist Party won the most votes and the most seats in the Parliament, making Cazalla Beldad the next Prime Minister of Creeperopolis. His victory was heavily protested by the parties of the Creeperian Conservative Coalition, and to an extent, by the National Liberal Party of the People's Social Coalition.
Cazalla Beldad was inaugurated as Prime Minister on 31 December 1927. He immediately began to implement socialist economic reforms, with the most significant being the Act to Protect the Workers of Creeperopolis which he passed on 3 January 1928. The act protected workers from being treated inhumanely by corporations, most notably, the National Coffee and Sugar Corporation (CORNACA). The bill mandated that all companies pay workers a minimum wage of 2 pesos per hour, extremely high for the time, as workers then could expect to receive 1 peso per day. The bill also mandated that all companies give workers at least 2 weeks of paid vacation time, a new idea for the time in Creeperopolis. Companies were also banned from using corporal punishment on workers and withholding pay for disciplinary issues and had to document a valid reason for a termination of an employment.
The act and its stipulations frustrated the leaderships of several corporations, including the National Coffee and Sugar Corporation, the National Mining and Smelting Corporation (CORNAMIF), Unión Pacífico (UP), the United Creeperian Banana Company (EMUPLAC), Expanding For You (EXPATI), among others. Every company in the country had until 3 March 1928 to implement internal reforms to be in compliance with the bills.
Some companies, like Unión Pacífico and the United Creeperian Banana Company, tried looking for loopholes in the bills passed in an effort to avoid compliance with the new reforms. The National Coffee and Sugar Corporation, however, went to extreme lengths in an attempt to evade compliance with the reforms. The CEO of the National Coffee and Sugar Corporation, Gustavo López Dávalos, contacted the Camisas Negras and managed to hire a group of assassins to assassinate Cazalla Beldad. They were instructed to carry out the assassination during a session of Parliament in order to make it seem like a political assassination and clear the National Coffee and Sugar Corporation from any connection.
On 7 February 1928, Cazalla Beldad was giving a speech to the Parliament, when three men dressed like soldiers of the Atheist Red Army, the paramilitary wing of the Creeperian Social Communist Party, stormed inside and shot him point blank, killing him instantly. A fight ensued between the men and police officers stationed nearby. Less than five minutes after the assassination, Sáenz Heredia, seeing the opportunity for a quick power-grab, declared himself Acting Prime Minister, and stated that all the reforms passed by Cazalla Beldad were null and void in an effort to stop the socialist reforms and to appease the corporations of Creeperopolis. The parties of the People's Social Coalition called Sáenz Heredia a "power-grabbing opportunist" and demanded his resignation, which he reluctantly did on 10 February 1928. His declaration that the reforms passed being void stood according to Creeperian law, and Hernández Videla applauded Sáenz Heredia and stated that he had saved Creeperopolis from a communist take over.
The Parliament held a vote to elect a new Prime Minister and Lacasa Campos of the Creeperian Social Communist Party was elected as Prime Minister. He declared that all the reforms of Cazalla Beldad were to be reinstated and that Sáenz Heredia was to be arrested for treason, but the High Court of Creeperopolis denied the arrest warrant due to the Catholic Royalist Party Immunity Act passed by Sáenz Heredia in 1903. Hernández Videla demanded the immediate removal of Lacasa Campos or the party would face "dire consequences," but his threat was ignored. Lacasa Campos had the two surviving assassins tortured, despite being illegal, for an extraction of information as to who ordered the assassination of Cazalla Beldad. Eventually, the assassins cracked and told the torturers that López Dávalos ordered the assassination, and the information was relayed to Lacasa Campos. He had the two assassins hanged on 17 February 1928 for treason against the nation.
López Dávalos, despite having to implement internal reforms to be in accordance with the law, continued to carry out practices that had been made illegal by passed legislation. His workers called their wages "dirt poor" and demanded him to follow the law. Lacasa Campos, knowing that López Dávalos ordered Cazalla Beldad's assassination and seeing that he continues to refuse to comply with the reforms passed, ordered the Atheist Red Army under the command of Cayetano Handel Carpio to assassinate López Dávalos.
On 23 February 1928, the Atheist Red Army arrived at the mansion of López Dávalos in San Romero and killed him and his entire family. The assassination was denounced publicly by Sáenz Heredia and he called for the immediate arrest of Handel Carpio and Lacasa Campos. Hernández Videla announced that the Atheist Red Army had pulled the "final straw" and that its leaders would "suffer dearly" for their crimes. The Atheist Red Army began plans to have Sáenz Heredia and Hernández Videla assassinated, as to silence the political opposition to Lacasa Campos's government. The Falange Creeperiano, the paramilitary wing of the Catholic Royalist Party, had its own plans to assassinate Handel Carpio and Lacasa Campos.
On 1 March 1928, early in the morning, forty members of the Falange Creeperiano arrived at the homes of Handel Carpio and Lacasa Campos, twenty at each home. The men broke into their homes and killed everyone they found inside. Lacasa Campos was found in his kitchen and he was beheaded together with his wife and two adult sons. Their heads were put on pikes in their backyard and their bodies were burned in the bathroom, along with many of Lacasa Campos' writings, some of which were completely lost and are unrecoverable as no copies were ever made. The fire they started eventually engulfed the entire house, which burned to the ground.
Handel Carpio was not killed, however, as he was not home at the time. His wife and fourteen year old daughter, however, both were home at the time of the break in. Both were raped by the men of the Falange Creeperiano and executed by firing squad. Handel Carpio's house was lit on fire and burned to the ground. His three pet dogs were also burned alive in the fire. The men then marched to the next house down the road, forcibly broke into it, and identified its owner as a member of the Creeperian Socialist Party. He was also executed by firing squad, and his house was also burned down, killing his wife and three children in the process.
The Parliament went into a panic when news of the events that unfolded that morning broke. An article in the Gaceta Creeperiano newspaper rhetorically asked, "What men with the hearts of Deltinians could possibly do this to fellow Creeperans?" Hernández Videla celebrated the death of Lacasa Campos, his family, and the family of Handel Carpio, and the Camisas Negras commended the actions of the Falange Creeperiano. Rolando Rubio Noboa, Lacasa Campos' successor as General Secretary of the Creeperian Social Communist Party, vehemently denounced the assassinations and called for all members of the Atheist Red Army to actively engaged the Falange Creeperiano in the streets of Creeperopolis to avenge Lacasa Campos, to fight on behalf of the workers, and to punish them for high treason against the Parliament. Jorge Meléndez Ramírez, who was Cazalla Beldad's successor as leader of the Creeperian Socialist Party, called on the High Court to review Catholic Royalist Party Immunity Act, rightfully nullify it as unconstitutional, and allow the Civil Police to arrest anyone and everyone involved, or even slightly involved, with the assassinations of Cazalla Beldad, Lacasa Campos, and even as a token of bipartisanship, López Dávalos.
Sáenz Heredia arranged a conference in front of the Parliament building later in the day on 1 March 1928. He had a backdrop erected with the names of several Creeperans which were killed by the Atheist Red Army in 1928 alone. In it, he gave a speech addressing the assassinations, as it was his paramilitary involved in the assassinations. He spoke:
The Falange Creeperiano has done the Fatherland a favor. This favor is a great favor that our Fatherland desperately needed. Beginning on 31 December 1927, Don Édgar Cazalla Beldad began implementing his communist policies to ruin the Fatherland and its people. He claimed to be on the side of the workers, be he was really on the side of Satan and Baphomet themselves. All he wanted was for the suffering of the Creeperian people and his own wealth and benefit. Rightfully so, he was silenced by the Camisas Negras on 7 February 1928.
Then came along Don Joel Lacasa Campos and Don Cayetano Handel Carpio who ordered the murder of Don Gustavo López Dávalos for absolutely no reason. The communists then proceeded to openly celebrate the murder as if they had saved the Fatherland. Those who carried out the murder were of the Atheist Red Army, who claim to be the heroes of the Fatherland.
Behind me is a list of names. Listed include: Martín Eufrasio Gúzman, Miguel Ureña Pasavilla, José Maduro Victoriano, José Salinas Escalón, Concepción Záldivar Bosque, Romero Viareal Fuentes, Mario Viareal Fuentes, Rubí Flores Molina, María Huerta Soriano, Miguel Surez Lopaz, Ana Tejón Salle, Manuel Guillén Guillén, Héctor Guerrero Sobrino, and Esmeralda Murria Obregón. What do all of them have in common? Well, they were unfortunately brutally murdered by the Atheist Red Army for no reason at all. Are these the people we want to worship, those who murder innocent civilians? Are these the people we hold as the heroes of Creeperopolis, when they kill those who will conceive the new generation of strong Creeperans? The death of Lacasa Campos was more than justified, and i wholeheartedly commend the actions of my Falange Creeperiano in saving the Fatherland!
A random independent politician from San Salvador, Serafín Velázquez Andrade, the then Mayor of Pasadena, was selected to serve as Acting Prime Minister from 1 March 1928 until 2 March 1928 to allow a new vote for Prime Minister to be arranged. The Parliament elected Tobías Gaos Nores from the National Liberal Party to be Prime Minister since he was a moderate and centrist politician and was a member of a party which had not been aligned with any of the violence that had been occurring over the past two months. He took office on 2 March 1928.
On 4 March 1928, the Atheist Red Army opened fire on soldiers of the Falange Creeperiano in San Salvador and a shootout ensued. The Civil Police was reluctant to intervene and allowed the shootout to end naturally. In the end, 7 members of the Atheist Red Army and 12 members of the Falange Creeperiano were dead. In the wake of the shootout, the Parliament held an emergency session on 5 March 1928, Gaos Nores held a vote to enact martial law in the nation. The proposal was heavily opposed by the Catholic Royalist Party, Creeperian Pro-Fatherland Front, and Creeperian Social Communist Party, as their paramilitaries were at risk of being dispersed by the Creeperian Army, effectively ending the street fighting, which all of them encouraged. Both the National Conservative Party and National Liberal Party fully supported the motion of martial law, seeing it as a ticket to gaining public support in the 1932 general election as both parties had been declining in voter share since the early 1920s. The Creeperian Socialist Party was split on the issue, as some argued they had to join forces with the Creeperian Social Communist Party in directly fighting the far-right, while others argued its best to fight the far-right in the Parliament and not on the streets. The final vote tally was 49 in favor, 48 in opposition, and 1 abstention. Later that day, Gaos Nores declared martial law and ordered the Creeperian Army to occupy San Salvador and restore order.
On 6 March 1928, the Creeperian Army, numbering around 50,000 soldiers and commanded by Supreme Caudillo Jaime Cabañeras Zapata, entered San Salvador and began the occupation of the city. The Camisas Negras decided to display their power in opposition of the Creeperian Army. A force of around 100 Camisas Negras gathered in a park in Pasadena and declared that the Creeperian Army had no jurisdiction in the city. The Creeperian Army arrived and dispersed the gathering of Camisas Negras, killing dozens in the process. A similar show of force was taken by the Atheist Red Army on 9 March 1928. Numbering around 150, they also boasted that the Creeperian Army had no jurisdiction in Denilla. Like the Camisas Negras, the gathering of the Atheist Red Army was also dispersed by the Creeperian Army, and dozens more were killed. On 19 March 1928, the Falange Creeperiano attempted their own show of force, but it was against dispersed by the Creeperian Army.
On 8 April 1928, Easter Sunday, the Camisas Negras and Falange Creeperiano launched an attack on a building which was used by the Atheist Red Army. The attack was the first engagement between the paramilitaries since martial law was declared. In the ensuing shootout, all three paramilitaries suffered heavy casualties, and the Camisas Negras even launched an attack on a nearby building, killing many inside, for a strategic defensive position. The Creeperian Army was dispatched to end the shootout. In what is now know as the Easter Massacre, 23 soldiers of the Atheist Red Army, 25 soldiers of the Camisas Negras, 12 soldiers of the Falange Creeperiano, 13 soldiers of the Creeperian Army, and 28 civilians were killed, for a total of 101 dead.
Following the massacre, the Creeperian Army began hunting down those involved. In the ensuing manhunts, 44 members of the Atheist Red Army, 59 members of the Camisas Negras, and 39 members of the Falange Creeperiano were arrested. The Creeperian Army did not go after the leadership of the three paramilitaries, they only went after those directly involved in the shootout. On 10 April 1928, Sáenz Heredia made an official statement ordering the Falange Creeperiano to back off and cease its attacks on the Atheist Red Army and the Creeperian Army. Rubio Noboa and Handel Carpio made a similar order on 12 April 1928, ordering the Atheist Red Army to stop attacking the Falange Creeperiano, Camisas Negras, and Creeperian Army. Hernández Videla declared that the Camisas Negras would never cease its attacks against the Atheist Red Army, but when another demonstration of the Camisas Negras was crushed on 14 April 1928, he officially ordered the Camisas Negras to cease attacking the Atheist Red Army and Creeperian Army on 16 April 1928. After all three declarations were made by the leaders of the paramilitaries, the Parliament convened on 19 April 1928 to end martial law. The vote passed unanimously and Gaos Nores declared an end to martial law. The Creeperian Army fully withdrew from San Salvador that same day, ending the Crisis of 1928.
Prime Minister vacancy votes
10 February 1928 vacancy vote
50 / 99
49 / 99
2 March 1928 vacancy vote
56 / 98
30 / 98
9 / 98
3 / 98
The people of Creeperopolis were appalled by the violence that occurred from January to April 1928. Popular support for the Creeperian Socialist Party, Creeperian Social Communist Party, Creeperian Pro-Fatherland Front, and Catholic Royalist Party all fell due to their support and encouragement and inciting of the violence, in which 44 civilians were killed and another 141 were injured. As a direct result, the National Conservative Party and National Liberal Party both gained popular support. Both parties were the only two to gain seats in the 1932 general election, as the Creeperian Socialist Party, Creeperian Social Communist Party, Creeperian Pro-Fatherland Front, and Catholic Royalist Party all lost seats. Gaos Nores continued his Premiership and he was popular throughout it. He died in office on 17 July 1932 after falling ill with Creeperian Malaria and he was succeeded by Meléndez Ramírez, who was a despised figure due to his role in the violence of 1928.
The Atheist Red Army, Camisas Negras, and Falange Creeperiano all continued existence after the Crisis of 1928. The National Conservative Party and National Liberal Party cosponsored a bill on 1 May 1928 to forcibly dissolve the three paramilitaries, but the Creeperian Social Communist Party, Creeperian Pro-Fatherland Front, and Catholic Royalist Party all voted together against the bill and convinced some members of the Creeperian Socialist Party to also vote against the bill, failing the bill.
Impact on the Second Parliamentary Era
The events of the Crisis of 1928 had a direct impact on the downfall of the Second Parliamentary Era of Creeperopolis. The violence caused by the Atheist Red Army, Camisas Negras, and Falange Creeperiano normalized violence as a means of advancing a political agenda, and the failure to ban the three paramilitaries emboldened them to never reform themselves and continue carrying out acts of violence. The period of 1921 to 1949 has been referred to as The Reigns of Terrors as the three groups effectively reigned the streets of Creeperopolis and instilled terror in civilians wherever they were. The normalization of violence lead to the outbreak of the Creeperian Civil War on 2 January 1933 following the San Salvador del Norte Incident, where soldiers loyal to Romero I clashed with soldiers loyal to Miguel VII.
Impact on modern Creeperopolis
The Crisis of 1928 is looked back upon as a period of unrest and political turmoil. The Ministry of Education of Creeperopolis points to the events of the Crisis of 1928 as what can happen in a democratic system when rivalries boil over and are not controlled. Several events have been retroactively compared to the Crisis of 1928, including the Siege of San Salvador, the 1976 Creeperian coup d'état attempt, the Mara War, the 2003 Creeperian coup d'état, the Franciscan Summer, and the 2020 Creeperian coup d'état attempt.
In popular culture
- The events of the Crisis of 1928 were mentioned in the 13th episode of the 1st season of the Creeperian sitcom El Chavo which aired on 11 April 1970.
- The 2001 documentary 1928 recount the events of the Crisis of 1928.
- The 2006 documentary La'Batalla de San Salvador mentions the events of the Crisis of 1928 as background information relating to the Siege of San Salvador of 1946–1949, even making comparisons between the two.
- The 2009 book Guerra Civil by Orlando Pareja Palau briefly describe the events of the Crisis of 1928 and compares it to the Siege of San Salvador.
- The 2013 song Ay, Más Guerra by FU511AR and Don Cheto make reference to the events of the Crisis of 1928.
- The 2021 video game 1928 is set during the events of the Crisis of 1928, specifically in the days after martial law was declared.
- Political support only.