Antonio Sáenz Heredia
Antonio Sáenz Heredia
|1st Secretary of the Creeperian Initiative|
4 October 1949 – 1 June 1957
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Antonio Sáenz García|
|Prime Minister of Creeperopolis|
31 December 1932 – 4 October 1949
|Deputy||Ramón Serrano Suñer|
|Preceded by||Jorge Meléndez Ramírez|
|Succeeded by||Position abolished|
7 February 1928 – 10 February 1928
Acting Prime Minister
|Preceded by||Édgar Cazalla Beldad|
|Succeeded by||Joel Lacasa Campos|
31 December 1922 – 31 December 1927
|Preceded by||Édgar Cazalla Beldad|
|Succeeded by||Édgar Cazalla Beldad|
31 December 1912 – 31 December 1917
|Preceded by||Inhué Ordóñez Yepes|
|Succeeded by||Inhué Ordóñez Yepes|
31 December 1902 – 31 December 1907
|Preceded by||Macos Espiga Mina|
|Succeeded by||Inhué Ordóñez Yepes|
|Captain General of San Romero|
7 October 1949 – 1 June 1957
|Preceded by||Luís Enríquez Molina|
|Succeeded by||Orlando Xirau Aguayo|
Antonio José Sáenz y Heredia
6 March 1871
San Romero, San Romero, Creeperopolis
|Died||1 June 1957 (aged 86)|
San Romero, San Romero, Creeperopolis
|Resting place||Valley of the Fallen, San Emmanuel, San Salvador, Creeperopolis|
|Political party||Creeperian Initiative (1949–1957)|
Nazaret García Seco
(m. 1900; died 1956)
|Children||5, including Antonio|
|Alma mater||San Romero University[note 1]|
Antonio José Sáenz y Heredia, 1st Duke of Sáenz (6 March 1871 – 1 June 1957) was a Creeperian politician and lawyer who served as the prime minister of Creeperopolis on five separate occasions, as the leader of the Catholic Royalist Party (PRC), and as the secretary of the Creeperian Initiative (IC). He was a member of the Second Creeperian Parliament from 1897 until 1949, when he became a member of the Cortes Generales, the national legislature established following the Creeperian Civil War (1933–1949). He also served as the captain general of San Romero from 1949 until his death in 1957.
Sáenz Heredia became the leader of the Catholic Royalist Party in 1901, rebranding the party entirely to abide by his own political interests instead of simply a party which supported the reinstitution of the Creeperian absolute monarchy. His party went on to become the largest party in the parliament after the 1902 general election, and Sáenz Heredia was selected as prime minister by the majority Creeperian Conservative Coalition (CCC). He served as prime minister on five occasions: 1902–1907, 1912–1917, 1922–1927, 1928, and 1932–1949 — the most of any prime minister. He led the country during the attempted Christmas Coup of 1923, the San Pedro Incident of 1925, through part of the Crisis of 1928, and throughout all of the seventeen-year long Creeperian Civil War which raged from 1933 to 1949.
During the civil war, he aligned himself with Emperor Romero I and the Catholic Imperial Restoration Council (Imperial Council), becoming one of the Imperial Council's most important political figures. He maintain favor with Romero I during the early years of the civil war and remained as prime minister, becoming one of the most powerful people within the Imperial Council. Despite being the prime minister, the legally most powerful position under the constitution (which at that point had been abandoned), he competed in a power struggle with the other two major factions of the Imperial Council: the monarchy under Romero I and the military under Adolfo Cabañeras Moreno, and later, Alfonso Cabañeras Moreno.
After the end of the civil war in October 1949, Sáenz Heredia was appointed as the secretary of the Nationalist Creeperian Catholic Royal Initiative and the Pro-Fatherland Front of Unification (IRCCN y la'FPPU), otherwise known as the Creeperian Initiative, Creeperopolis' sole legal political party. He was also appointed as the captain general of the department of San Romero, making him an official member of the Cortes Generales, the legislature which officially replaced the parliament. Although he sought to establish himself as a strongman in Creeperian politics and had dictatorial aspirations, even styling himself as a caudillo, Sáenz Heredia came out of the civil war as the weakest of the three institutions of power in Creeperopolis–the legislature and the party–behind the monarchy and the military.
Sáenz Heredia died on 1 June 1957 and was given a state funeral in San Salvador. He was initially buried in the Metropolitan Cathedral of San Romero, but was later exhumed and reburied in the Valley of the Fallen in San Emmanuel in September 1960. He is championed by the Creeperian government as one of the modern fathers of the Creeperian political system and as a hero for the Fatherland. One of his great grandchildren, José Sáenz Morales, serves as the current secretary of the Creeperian Initiative as he established a political dynasty within the party. Many streets, locations, and organizations have been named after Sáenz Heredia, most notably the Antonio José Sáenz y Heredia University, the Antonio José Sáenz y Heredia International Airport, and the Sáenz Heredia Memorial Stadium.
Outside of Creeperopolis, his political career has been heavily criticized for its authoritarian tendencies, mass human rights abuses, and widespread war crimes and crimes against humanity. During his five tenures as prime minister, Creeperopolis experienced notable phases of democratic backsliding including the illegal executive repeal of passed legislation, the use of the Falange Creeperiano paramilitary to intimidate voters and political opponents, and the fixing of the 1912 general election (although he was not prime minister during the election). Sáenz Heredia rejected democracy throughout his political career, denouncing it as a "communist hoax and conspiracy to conquer the world" and was a major proponent of anti-communism. He also opposed Islam and atheism, rejecting both as a threat to Creeperopolis' Catholic identity.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Early political career
- 3 Premierships
- 4 Civil war
- 5 Post-civil war politics
- 6 Personal life
- 7 Death and burial
- 8 Awards and decorations
- 9 Legacy
- 10 Electoral history
- 11 Ancestry
- 12 See also
- 13 Notes
- 14 References
- 15 External links
Antonio José Sáenz y Heredia was born on 6 March 1871 in San Romero, San Romero, Creeperopolis. He was born during the period in Creeperian history known as the Adolfisto (1833–1887) which lasted throughout the reign of Creeperian Emperor Adolfo III. His father was Miguel Antonio Sáenz y Orbaneja, a lawyer and politician who was serving as the mayor of San Romero when Sáenz Heredia was born. Sáenz Orbaneja was considered to be a well-respected politician and was a strong supporter of Adolfo III's absolute reign. Sáenz Heredia's mother was Casilda María Heredia y Suárez de Sáenz.
Many believed that Sáenz Orbaneja was preparing his son to succeed him as mayor of San Romero, however, he died suddenly at the age of 57 on 18 January 1882 when Sáenz Heredia was only 10 years old, and he was ultimately succeeded instead by Miguel Casanova Castañeda. Sáenz Heredia still wanted to following his father in pursuing a political career as his father had already taught him to support the Creeperian absolute monarchy and be a devout follower of the Creeperian Catholic Church. Throughout his adolescence, Sáenz Heredia was cared for by his mother. Using her husband's status as a former mayor of San Romero, she helped enroll Sáenz Heredia to the San Romero University,[note 1] the most prestigious university in the city, in 1890 to study law in preparation for his hopeful political career. He completed his studies in 1897.
Early political career
Rise to leader of the Catholic Royalist Party
Sáenz Heredia joined the right-wing Catholic Royalist Party (PRC) in 1889 as soon as he was legally old enough to join. In 1887, democracy was reestablished in Creeperopolis and the powers of the monarchy were considerably limited; the Catholic Royalist Party sought to abolish democracy and restore the absolute powers of the monarch. Due to his father's influence, Sáenz Heredia joined the party and advocated for the abolition of the parliament. He began work as a lawyer in 1897 for the then mayor of San Romero, Julio Fernández Alvarado, who was a member of the Catholic Royalist Party.
Using his status as the son of a former mayor of San Romero, Sáenz Heredia managed to associate himself with many Catholic Royalist politicians and rose his status within the party significantly. He was invited to speak at several party events in the prelude to the 1892 and 1897 general elections, and his speaking talent gained him the attention of Francisco Dueñas Díaz, the party's leader, who saw him as a potential important figure to lead the party and spread its message. By 1896, Sáenz Heredia managed to rise to the position of the party's information secretary and deputy chairman, and used his positions to support Catholic Royalist politicians in the 1897 election, and in part to his campaigning for other candidates and his speeches regarding the party's platform, the party won a total of 32 seats, and increase of 21 from the previous election. Sáenz Heredia himself was even elected to the parliament from San Romero's 1st District (San Romero City).
According to the memoirs of Dueñas Díaz, he suspected that Sáenz Heredia was seeking to use his position within the party to help him eventually take over the party's leadership which he would use further to advance his political career. Despite his concerns, through still uncertain circumstances (although historians have speculated that he had been bribed), Dueñas Díaz resigned as chairman of the Catholic Royalist Party on 13 December 1901 and named Sáenz Heredia as his successor. Upon assuming the chairmanship of the party, Sáenz Heredia named two of his close allies which he met at the San Romero University, Alfonso García Valdecasas and Julio Alda Miqueleiz, as his co-deputy chairmen.
On 17 February 1902, Sáenz Heredia renamed the position of chairman of the Catholic Royalist Party to caudillo of the Catholic Royalist Party. Caudillo was a historical the military title used by the leader of the Creeperian Armed Forces (FAC), and he chose to use the title to portray his power and influence within Creeperian politics. The flag of the party was also changed; the flag was originally the Creeperian national flag used by the Adolfisto, but Sáenz Heredia changed the flag to a black and gold vertical triband with a yoke and arrows in the center, a medieval symbol of the absolute monarchy. He also established the Frente de Juventudes (FREJUV), the party's student wing, the Juventudes Católicos (JUVCAT), the party's youth wing, and the Sección Femenina (SECFEM), the party's female wing.
The most consequential group he established, however, was the Falange Creeperiano (FALCRE), the party's paramilitary wing. The Falange served to protect party events and intimidate political opponents and voters, and the paramilitary often came into direct conflict with the Creeperian Social Communist Party's (PCSC) own paramilitary, the Atheist Red Army (ERA). The conflict between the two paramilitaries began upon the establishment of the Falange, as it declared war against the Atheist Red Army, and the Reigns of Terrors persisted until 1949 with the dissolution of both groups. The establishment of many party wings was a part of Sáenz Heredia's rebranding and reorganization of the party. The Falange Creeperiano bore a different flag from the party; instead of a black and gold vertical triband, the paramilitary's flag was a red and black vertical triband to represent the blood shed by those defending Creeperopolis' values and freedom.
1902 general election
For the upcoming 1902 general election, Sáenz Heredia sought to get himself elected as the country's prime minister, which would require the Catholic Royalist Party to be the largest party in the parliament following the election. He, García Valdecasas, and Alda Miqueleiz spread pro-Catholic Royalist propaganda and anti-leftist propaganda in the months leading up to the election. They also led operations to bribe many government officials to voice their support for Sáenz Heredia and the party over the other two major political parties: the center-left National Liberal Party (PLN) led by Inhué Ordóñez Yepes and the center-right National Conservative Party (PCN) led by Macos Espiga Mina. Sáenz Heredia importantly received the vocal support of Emperor Alexander I, as he was already a party member, and the vocal support of former party leader Dueñas Díaz.
With the general election in December, the Falange Creeperiano increased its intimidation tactics and Alda Miqueleiz increased his bribes to get Sáenz Heredia elected Prime Minister. On election day, 1 December 1902, 75.34% of all registered votes voted, of whom, 44.83% (1,677,072) voted for the Catholic Royalist Party making the party the largest party in the Parliament with 46 seats, an increase of the 32 won in the 1897 general election. With the victory of the Catholic Royalist Party in the general election, Sáenz Heredia was elected as Prime Minister-elect of Creeperopolis. He was scheduled to take office on 31 December 1902, succeeding incumbent National Conservative Party and fellow Creeperian Conservative Coalition Prime Minister, Espiga Mina.
Antonio Sáenz Heredia took office as the third Prime Minister of Creeperopolis on 31 December 1902. He was the youngest ever Prime Minister of Creeperopolis beginning his first term at only the age of 30.
Sáenz Heredia used his first term in office to build a positive reputation for himself and the Catholic Royalist Party to remain in power through the next election cycle. The first piece of legislation he passed was on 1 January 1903. It was the Catholic Royalist Party Immunity Act which prevented all members of the Catholic Royalist Party from being investigated for allegations of corruption, embezzlement, or money laundering. The act stipulated that it could not be repealed. The act was heavily criticized by members of the People's Social Coalition (CSP), most notably the Creeperian Social Communist Party (PCSC). The act was supported by Emperor Alexander I, since he himself was a member of the Catholic Royalist Party.
Sáenz Heredia also allowed the passage of the Monarchal Immunity Act which granted immunity to all legitimate monarchs of Creeperopolis. The bill was again criticized by the People's Social Coalition and the Creeperian Social Communist Party.
Aside from these two significant acts which were passed, Sáenz Heredia is described as "highly forgettable" due to little being accomplished. He easily lost to Ordóñez Yepes' National Liberal Party in the 1907 general election. The Catholic Royalist Party lost 23 seats, falling to 23 seats in total, and the Premiership while the National Liberal Party won 43 seats, an increase of 31 from the 12 won in 1902. Due to the victory of the National Liberal Party, Ordóñez Yepes was elected to a second term as Prime Minister.
From 1907 to 1912, the Triumvirate of the Catholic Royalist Party worked hard to get Sáenz Heredia reelected to power. In 1908, Alda Miqueleiz approached Emperor Alexander I and asked the Emperor to help the Catholic Royalist Party rig the 1912 general election in favor of the Catholic Royalist Party. The Emperor agreed to skew the results of the election in Sáenz Heredia's favor, but he died in 1910 and was suceeded by his younger brother, Alfonso V. Alda Miqueleiz approached Alfonso V with the same proposition to which he also agreed to. Sáenz Heredia decisively won the 1912 general election with 36.59% of the vote, winning 41 seats. The rival National Liberal Party meanwhile lost 14 seats falling down to 29 total. The People's Social Coalition heavily questioned the legitimacy of the election but due to the Catholic Royalist Party Immunity Act from Sáenz Heredia's first term, there was nothing that the People's Social Coalition could do.
Sáenz Heredia took office for a second term as Prime Minister on 31 December 1912. Immediately, he faced protests from voters of the People's Social Coalition. Protestors organized mass demonstrations against Sáenz Heredia's government accusing him and the Emperor of rigging the election. Meanwhile, counter protestors who supported Sáenz Heredia protested against the protestors leading to clashes and violence. Sáenz Heredia send the Civil Police of Creeperopolis to disperse the protestors. As the protests continued through February, he sent the Falange Creeperiano to disperse and fight the protestors. The protests died down by late-February and his position as Prime Minister was firmly secured for his second term from 1912 to 1917.
During his second term, he passed acts which further protected him and his political allies which increased criticism from his detractors. He continued to utilize his Falange Creeperiano to harass political opponents from the People's Social Coalition and continued to engage in street fights with the Atheist Red Army.
He again lost reelection for a consecutive term again to Ordóñez Yepes in the 1917 general election. The Catholic Royalist Party fell from 41 seats to 29 while the National Liberal Party rose from 29 to 35, however, the Creeperian Conservative Coalition did maintain majority control of the parliament.
The Triumvurate continued their tactics to win the vote for the 1922 general election. Sáenz Heredia won a third term with 35.16% of the vote with the Catholic Royalist Party rising from 29 seats up to 36, while the National Liberal Party disintegrated under Alfonso Quiñónez Molina following the death of Ordóñez Yepes from 41 seats all the way down to only 9 seats. However, the Creeperian Socialist Party under Édgar Cazalla Beldad began to become a threat to the Catholic Royalist Party jumping up from 9 seats to 27.
A new party entered the 1922 general election and won 1.28% of the vote: the Creeperian Pro-Fatherland Front, a far-right fascist extremist group. It formed in 1921 and began engaging in combat with the Atheist Red Army with its own Camisas Negras (Black Shirts), starting the infamous time in Creeperian history known as The Reigns of Terrors, which is commonly cited as the beginning of the Creeperian Conflicts. Its leader was Carlos Hernández Videla and Hernández Videla's Creeperian Pro-Fatherland Front failed to gain a single seat in the Creeperian Parliament despite gaining over one percent of the total national vote in the 1922 general election. Hernández Videla was convinced that democracy had failed him, the party, and the Fatherland, and began arranging a "Grand Revolution" to bring Fascism to Creeperopolis.
Hernández Videla organized his party’s paramilitary detachment, the Camisas Negras, in preparation for the upcoming coup d'état and Revolution. The coup was planned for one year and the date was set as 25 December 1923. The plan was to topple the government while the Creeperian people and the government were celebrating the birth of Jesús. He believed that no one would be able to stop him and his Camisas Negras from seizing power.
On 24 December, the Civil Police of Creeperopolis arrested a drunk member of the Creeperian Pro-Fatherland Front who started a brawl in a beer hall in San Salvador. The police found a letter on the man detailing the coup plan. The government was immediately notified and Sáenz Heredia immediately ordered the Creeperian Army to be stationed in San Salvador to crush the coup on 25 December.
When the day came, 4,000 Camisas Negras paramilitary soldiers marched on the streets of San Salvador and marched to the Parliament building. As the soldiers were just under one mile from the Parliament, the Army appeared and began an engagement with the Camisas Negras. The firefight lasted just under 30 minutes with most Camisas Negras fleeing the scene. Official reports list 35 Camisas Negras and 11 Army soldiers died and 1,212 Camisas Negras were arrested, including Hernández Videla.
Hernández Videla and other Creeperian Pro-Fatherland Front leaders were put on trial for high treason and faced the death penalty, but the sympathetic judges from his home district, La'Copero, only sentences him and the front members to a one year prison sentence. Hernández Videla was released from prison on February 28, 1925. He quickly returned to lead the Creeperian Pro-Fatherland Front and transitioned the party to abide by the democratic system as a means to gain total power.
Sáenz Heredia was initially angry that the judges gave Hernández Videla such a lenient sentence and was ready to order his immediate execution on his order to overrule the judicial system. He was, however, convinced by Ramón Serrano Suñer to utilize Hernández Videla as a tool to combat the Atheist Red Army by using Hernández Videla's Camisas Negras. After Hernández Videla was released, he returned to politics and Sáenz Heredia offered him to join the Creeperian Conservative Coalition, which Hernández Videla accepted.
Later in 1925, Sáenz Heredia faced another uprising against his government in Creeperopolis' southernmost department, San Pedro.
In 1922, the Action Party for Granilla was formed by Xilgorio Nogueira Ovalle. The Action Party for Granilla's goal was the separation of San Pedro from Creeperopolis and for San Pedro to be an independent nation.
On 5 September 1925, Nogueira Ovalle, inspired by Hernández Videla's Christmas Coup two years earlier, marched on San Pedro with 100 armed members of the Action Party for Granilla to capture the capitol building and declare independence for San Pedro as the "Republic of San Pedro" by the end of the day.
Mayor Humberto Arriagada Valdivieso was made known of the coup attempt and quickly alerted the Creeperian Army garrison of 270 to prepare to fight off the coup. A firefight ensued between the Creeperian Army and the armed members of the Action Party for Granilla. In the fighting, 60 were killed and 40 were captured on the side of the Action Party for Granilla. Meanwhile, 21 were killed and 23 were wounded on the side of the Creeperian Army.
Sáenz Heredia was notified of the incident in San Pedro and he immediately ordered that Nogueira Ovalle must be tried in San Salvador and not in San Pedro. Arriagada Valdivieso refused to allow Nogueira Ovalle to be tried in San Salvador by citing that Hernández Videla was not tried in the capital. The two came to a compromise and agreed that Nogueira Ovalle would be tried in San Pedro by judges from San Salvador.
The judges found Nogueira Ovalle guilty of high treason, establishing and leading a criminal organization (the Action Party for Granilla), murder, and manslaughter, and sentenced him to death by hanging. The execution was carried out on 14 March 1926.
He lost the 1927 general election to Cazalla Beldad's Creeperian Socialist Party.
Crisis of 1928 and fourth term
Cazalla Beldad became Prime Minister on 31 December 1927. He was the first Prime Minister of the Creeperian Socialist Party. He immediately began to implement socialist reforms, with the most significant being the Act to Protect the Workers of Creeperopolis which he passed on 3 January 1928. The act protected workers from being treated inhumanely by corporations such as the National Coffee and Sugar Corporation (CORNACA). The act angered then CEO of the National Coffee and Sugar Corporation, Gustavo López Davidson. He wanted to make as much money as possible from his sugar and coffee plantations but the new reforms passed by Cazalla Beldad forced him to grant human rights to his workers which cost him money. He hired a group of assassins, likely from the Camisas Negras, to assassinate Cazalla Beldad.
On 7 February 1928, Cazalla Beldad was giving a speech to the Parliament when three men stormed inside and shot Cazalla Beldad point blank, killing him instantly. A fight ensued between the men and police officers stationed nearby. Less than five minutes after the assassination, Sáenz Heredia declared himself Acting Prime Minister and stated that all the reforms passed by Cazalla Beldad were null and void as to appease the aristocrats of Creeperopolis. The parties of the People's Social Coalition called Sáenz Heredia a power grabbing opportunist and demanded that he steps down, which he did on 10 February 1928.
The Parliament held a vote to elect a new Prime Minister and Joel Lacasa Campos of the Creeperian Social Communist Party was elected as Prime Minister. He declared that all the reforms of Cazalla Beldad were to be reinstated and that Sáenz Heredia should be arrested for treason, but the Supreme Court denied the arrest warrant due to the Catholic Royalist Party Immunity Act passed by Sáenz Heredia in 1903.
López Davidson, despite having to grant human rights to his workers according to the law, continued to deny human rights to his workers and continued to pay them "dirt poor wages" as according to several sources. His actions angered many in the Creeperian Social Communist Party. The Atheist Red Army under the command of Handel Carpio was ordered to assassinate López Davidson. On 23 February 1928, the Atheist Red Army arrived at the private home of López Davidson and killed him and his entire family in revenge for treating his workers poorly. The assassination was denounced publicly by Sáenz Heredia and he called for the immediate arrest of Handel Carpio and Lacasa Campos. The Atheist Red Army began plans to have Sáenz Heredia assassinated, but the Falange Creeperiano had its own plans to assassinate Handel Carpio and Lacasa Campos. Around 40 members of the Falange Creeperiano arrived at the homes of Handel Carpio and Lacasa Campos on 1 March 1928 early in the morning, 20 at each home. The men broke into their homes and killed everyone they found inside. Lacasa Campos was found in his kitchen and was beheaded together with his wife and two adult sons. Handel Carpio was not killed, however, as he was not home at the time, but his wife and 14 year old daughter were both beheaded.
The Parliament was in a panic when it was made known that the Prime Minister was assassinated. A random independent politician from San Salvador, Serafín Velázquez Andrade, was selected to be Acting Prime Minister from 1 March 1928, until 2 March 1928, so that a new vote could be arranged. The Parliament elected Tobías Gaos Nores from the National Liberal Party to be Prime Minister. He took office on 2 March 1928, and remained as Prime Minister until he fell ill with Creeperian Malaria and died on 17 July 1932.
The people of Creeperopolis were tired of new governments being sworn in within the same five year term. The reputations of all the parties involved in the crisis: the Catholic Royalist Party, the Creeperian Social Communist Party, the Creeperian Socialist Party, and the Creeperian Pro-Fatherland Front. Meanwhile, the National Liberal Party and the National Conservative Party began to grow support as the parties were moderate and did not push extremist agendas. Acting Prime Minister Jorge Meléndez Ramírez of the Creeperian Socialist Party was heavily disliked.
Sáenz Heredia attempted to maintain the positive image of the Catholic Royalist Party in preparation of the general election of 1932 which would occur on 1 December 1932. Once again, the Triumvirate went to work to win votes for Sáenz Heredia and the Catholic Royalist Party. Alda Miqueleiz worked hard to receive the endorsements of prominent Creeperian figures, the most important of which was the Emperor, Adolfo IV. Adolfo IV voiced public support for the Catholic Royalist Party and appeared and several Catholic Royalist Party rallies throughout 1932. The Falange Creeperiano continued to harass political opponents in the months and days leading up to the election.
Sáenz Heredia came in second place in the 1932 general election winning 25 seats, but his ally, Máximo Illescas Freixa from the National Conservative Party, won 41 seats. On 23 December 1932, Acting Prime Minister Meléndez Ramírez addressed the Parliament and informed the representatives that Emperor Adolfo IV had fallen ill with Creeperian Malaria and that his condition was deteriorating every day. The new session of Parliament took office on 31 December 1932, and assured the public that Adolfo IV was doing well, when in fact he had days to live.
Emperor Adolfo IV died to Creeperian Malaria on 2 January 1933.
With the throne of Creeperopolis vacant, both sons of Adolfo IV, Romero I and Miguel VII, fought over the throne in the San Salvador Imperial Palace through a large argument. The two separated and would never see each other again and each addressed separate factions of the Creeperian Army. On 2 January 1933, soldiers loyal to Romero I and Miguel VII skirmished in San Salvador del Norte, San Salvador del Norte. The San Salvador del Norte Incident began what became the bloodiest war in Creeperian and Terraconservan history: the Creeperian Civil War.
Mayor of San Romero
On 3 January 1933, the day after the Creeperian Civil War erupted, Sáenz Heredia returned to his home city of San Romero during the middle of a visit to a National Coffee and Sugar Corporation plantation in rural San Romero and declared his support and the city's support and the department's support for Romero I and the Catholic Imperial Restoration Council, known as the Romerists, against Miguel VII and the National Council for Peace and Order, known as the Miguelists.
Romero I gave a public speech on 8 January 1933, officially dismissing then Mayor of San Romero, Lucián Guillén Abasto, and announced that Sáenz Heredia was the new Mayor of San Romero and that he will allow Sáenz Heredia to do whatever he deems necessary to keep the department and city from falling to the communist forces of the National Council for Peace and Order.
The first thing that Sáenz Heredia did as Mayor of Romero was order the immediate arrest of Guillén Abasto on 9 January 1933. Sáenz Heredia had Guillén Abasto tried for high treason against the Catholic Imperial Restoration Council and for supporting the National Council for Peace and Order on 12 January 1933. The judges were forced to rule guilty. Sáenz Heredia had Guillén Abasto publicly hanged in the streets of San Romero on 13 January 1933, securing his position as Mayor of Romero from any possible rivals from within the Catholic Imperial Restoration Council.
From 1933 through 1936, the National Council for Peace and Order had not bothered to attack the department of San Romero in any major way.
On 23 February 1934, the Romerist Army captured and arrested two former Prime Ministers of Creeperopolis: Velázquez Andrade, an independent with CSP sympathies, and Meléndez Ramírez, a member of the Creeperian Socialist Party. Both former Prime Ministers supported the National Council in the initial divide of the Parliament. Supreme Caudillo Adolfo Cabañeras Moreno and Sáenz Heredia ordered their execution. Velázquez Andrade and Meléndez Ramírez were executed on 1 March 1934.
Demise of the Triumvirate
On 23 August 1936, the Triumvirate of the Catholic Royalist Party consisting of Sáenz Heredia, García Valdecasas, and Alda Miqueleiz, was holding a rally in the city of San Romero. The Triumvirate was giving a speech about pro-Romerist and anti-Miguelist rhetoric, openly calling for the beheading of Miguel VII and Juan Salinas Figueroa, Miguel VII's second-in-command.
Sixteen armed men from the Atheist Red Army made their way behind the Triumvirate and waited for their moment to strike. The sixteen men had a transcript of the speech and had planned when in the speech they would strike and assassinate the Triumvirate which the Creeperian Social Communist Party had been fighting since 1901.
[...] Los'comunistas del Consejo Anticatólico y AntiDios [Consejo Nacional de Paz y Orden] han devastado a nuestro nación [Creeperópolis] durante demasiado tiempo. La'unica respuesta es un castigo. El unico castigo es tortura. La'unica tortura es el muerte. ¡Quel muerte llueve entre... [los'seguidores de Miguel el Comunisto!]— Antonio Sáenz Heredia
[...] The communists of the Anti-Catholic and Anti-God Council [National Council for Peace and Order] have ravaged our nation [Creeperopolis] for far too long. The only response is punishment. The only punishment is torture. The only torture is death. May death rain upon... [the followers of Miguel the Communist!]— Antonio Sáenz Heredia
When Sáenz Heredia said "May death rain upon," the sixteen men from the Atheist Red Army opened fire on the Triumvirate and on anyone present on stage yelling "May death rain upon the followers of Romero the Fascist!" The Falange Creeperiano immediately responded by opening fire back towards the Atheist Red Army. Civilians at the rally fled in panic and soldiers garrisoned in the city were put on high alert. The firefight lasted 21 minutes and ended with thirteen of the Atheist Red Army and seventeen of the Falange Creeperiano killed. The three surviving men of the Atheist Red Army were captured and taken as prisoners.
Sáenz Heredia, García Valdecasas, and Alda Miqueleiz were quickly rushed to the nearest hospital in the city. Anti-air units were deployed near the hospital and the hospital was surrounded and defended by members of the Falange Creeperiano and Creeperian Army. García Valdecasas and Alda Miqueleiz were pronounced dead on arrival to the hospital but Sáenz Heredia remained alive, but barely. He underwent three surgeries to remove bullets from his body. After three months in hospital on 11 November 1936, Sáenz Heredia appeared at the site of the massacre and gave a speech. The speech he gave was what he was saying when he was attacked by the Atheist Red Army.
May death rain upon the followers of Miguel the Communist!— Antonio Sáenz Heredia
Sáenz Heredia ordered the torture of the three surviving men from the assassination attempt. The men were tortured for one year from 12 November 1936, until 23 August 1937. On 23 August 1937, Sáenz Heredia had the three men publicly crucified on crosses in the shape of the Cross of Creeperopolis in front of the capitol building of San Romero. The three men were crucified and burned alive, and their bodies were left scorched in front of the capitol for nearly three years until the corpses were destroyed during the Miguelist bombing of San Romero in May 1940.
On 1 December 1936, Sáenz Heredia proclaimed himself as Duumvir of the Catholic Royalist Party with Serrano Suñer, an extremely influential figure within the party.
"Warlord" Mayor of San Romero
On 4 May 1940, the Miguelist Air Force began bombing the city of San Romero. The following day, 5 May 1940, an army of 150,000 men of the Miguelist Army arrived at San Romero and began attacking the city. The Miguelists pierced deep into Romerist territory with the goal of capturing the city. The attack was personally commanded by Handel Carpio, one of the men Sáenz Heredia ordered the death of during the Crisis of 1928. Handel Carpio sought to take revenge on Sáenz Heredia and publicly behead him and his entire family like the Falange Creeperiano did to his family back on 1 March 1928.
Sáenz Heredia requested immediate support from the Romerist Army units stationed in Salvador to assist his garrison of only 17,000 men. From 5 May 1940, to 17 May 1940, Sáenz Heredia's garrison stood strong against the army of 150,000 attacking the city. On 18 May, 95,000 reinforcements from Salvador arrived to relieve the initial garrison. The Romerist Air Force also arrived and fought off the Miguelist Air Force which had been harassing the civilians of San Romero.
The battle dragged through June and July until, on 12 July 1940, a convoy just south of San Romero with Handel Carpio aboard was bombed by the Romerist Air Force. The Romerist Army arrived at the site to recover any weapons and supplies that would be useful to the garrison when they discovered Handel Carpio still alive in the wreckage. He was immediately arrested and brought back to San Romero. Sáenz Heredia spoke harshly to Handel Carpio when he first came into contact with him on 13 July 1940. Sáenz Heredia announced that Handel Carpio had been captured and ordered the immediate surrender of all Miguelist forces in the department of San Romero. The soldiers refused and continued to fight in an attempt to rescue Handel Carpio. The Miguelist Air Force ended all bombing of the city since they did not want to accidentally kill Handel Carpio by mistake.
On 23 August 1940, the fourth anniversary of the Triumvirate Massacre, Sáenz Heredia had Handel Carpio nailed to a cross in the shape of the Cross of Creeperopolis and was crucified and burned alive in front of the capitol building of San Romero. After the execution of Handel Carpio was made known, the Miguelists withdrew from the city of San Romero on 25 August 1940, resulting in a decisive victory for the Catholic Imperial Restoration Council in the Battle of San Romero. He then ordered the immediate executions of Miguelist prisoners of war by firing squads on 30 August 1940. The brutality of Sáenz Heredia during the battle earned him the nickname of "Warlord Mayor of San Romero" by his supporters and detractors alike.
Remainder of the civil war
For the remainder of the civil war, Sáenz Heredia continued to govern the city as mayor and continued to hold rallies every 23 August in memory of his fellow Triumvirs who were killed in 1936.
Post-civil war politics
San Salvador Trials
After the Creeperian Civil War ended on 30 September 1949, with the final Catholic Imperial Restoration Council victory at the Battle of the Zapatista River, Sáenz Heredia was invited to San Salvador by victorious Emperor Romero II and Minister of Defense Alfonso Cabañeras Moreno to be a judge in the San Salvador Trials, the trial of the three captured Miguelist commanders of the Battle of the Zapatista River: Marcos Martínez Castro (Marcos I), Miguel Salinas Ortega, José Bolívar Aguirre, and Mariano Alcocer Fraga.
The four were tried for violating the Constitution of Creeperopolis[note 2], for participating in De-Catholization, for participating in the Red Terror, for crimes against humanity, for war crimes, for apostasy, and for the murder of Emperor Romero I on 6 July 1946.
All four were found guilty on all counts unanimously. When Alcocer Fraga, Handel Carpio's successor as General-Secretary of the Atheist Red Army, was being sentenced, Sáenz Heredia gave a speech on why Alcocer Fraga must be punished to the full extent of the government's power. On 25 December 1949, Martínez Castro, Salinas Ortega, Bolívar Aguirre, and Alcocer Fraga were all crucified and burned alive in front of the San Salvador Imperial Palace for civilians to watch.
Secretary of the Creeperian Initiative
On 4 October 1949, Romero II called to the National Conservative Party, Creeperian Pro-Fatherland Front, Crusaders of King Alfonso, Salvadoran Nationalist Party, and Sáenz Heredia's Catholic Royalist Party to all join forces and form one single political entity in Creeperopolis. All five accepted Romero II's call and merged to form the Iniciativa Real Católica Creeperiano Nacionalista y la'Frente Pro-Patria de Unificación (Nationalist Creeperian Catholic Royal Initiative and the Pro-Fatherland Front of Unification, IRCCN y la'FPPU, commonly called the Creeperian Initiative) on 4 October 1949, effectively dissolving the Catholic Royalist Party and the entire Parliament of Creeperopolis. Sáenz Heredia was appointed as Secretary of the Creeperian Initiative by Romero II, the third most powerful position in the party after the Chief Mayor of Creeperopolis held by his former political ally during the days of the Parliament, Illescas Freixa, and the Chairman of the Creeperian Initiative held by Romero II himself. Sáenz Heredia's Falange Creeperiano paramilitary organization was absorbed into the National Intelligence Directorate (Dirección de Inteligencia Nacional, DINA) on 5 October 1949.
Immediately when he became Secretary, he ordered the immediate banning of the National Liberal Party, the Creeperian Socialist Party, the Salvadoran Peoples' Party, and the Creeperian Social Communist Party. He ordered the immediate arrests of any and all senior party officials.
He continued to serve as Mayor of San Romero during his tenure as Secretary of the Creeperian Initiative and he continued to have large rallies every 23 August to commemorate his fellow Triumvirs who were killed in the Triumvirate Massacre of 1936.
Sáenz Heredia was married to Nazaret García Seco whom he married in 1900 and had five children with: Antonio José Sáenz y García, José Antonio Sáenz y García, Isabel María Sáenz y García, Adolfo Alfonso Sáenz y García, and María Gloria Sáenz y García. García Seco died on 15 March 1956. He was a devout Creeperian Catholic all his life.
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Sáenz Heredia was a staunch monarchist and Catholic fundamentalist. He generally supported all tenants of Romerism, a Creeperian political ideology he helped establish along with Cabañeras Moreno, Hernández Videla, Illescas Freixa, Romero I, Romero II, and Adolfo Rivera López.
Death and burial
Sáenz Heredia died on 1 June 1957, in the city he was born in, grew up in, and governed, San Romero, at the age of 86. He died due to heart failure in his sleep. He was survived by his three sons Antonio, José, and Adolfo, and his to daughters, Isabel and María.
Awards and decorations
- Grand Collar of the Imperial Cross of San Romero the Martyr (6 July 1987, posthumous)
- Grand Collar of the Imperial Order of Miguel the Great (31 December 1902)
- Grand Collar of the Imperial Cross of Alfonso the Great (31 December 1902)
- Grand Collar of the Imperial Order of Romerism (15 September 1950)
- Grand Collar of the Imperial Order of Manuel the Great (31 December 1902)
- Grand Collar of the Imperial Order of Valor and Bravery (31 December 1902)
- Grand Collar of the Imperial Order of the Cross of Carlos the Martyr (31 December 1902)
- Grand Collar of the Imperial Order of Merit (31 December 1902)
- Grand Collar of the Order of José Delgado León (31 December 1902)
- Grand Collar of the Order of the Creeperian Initiative (25 December 1949)
- Grand Collar of the Order of the Catholic Royalist Party (25 December 1949)
- Member of the Order of the Parliament (31 December 1897)
- Grand Collar of the Order of the Fatherland (3 October 1935)
- Grand Collar of the Order of José the Great (3 October 1935)
- Grand Collar of the Order of the Castillianan Eagle (1 April 1937)
- Grand Master of the Order of Service to the Fatherland (9 September 1934)
- Knight of the Supreme Order of Christ (9 September 1934)
- Grand Cross of the Order of the Papal Star (1 January 1903)
- Grand Cross of the Order of the Sacred Cross (1 January 1903)
Sáenz Heredia remains one of the most important and significant figures in Creeperian history. He served as Prime Minister of Creeperopolis four times and lead the city of San Romero during the Battle of San Romero. He was a justice of the San Salvador Trials and served as the Secretary of the Creeperian Initiative.
His most notable accomplishment was in his influence on the ideology he helped create: Romerism, which continues to govern the country.
|Antonio Sáenz Heredia||PRC–PCN||86,948||54.20|
|Armando Tejón Rubacalva||PLN–PSC||58,429||36.42|
|Nicolás Pérez Molina||Independent||11,192||6.98|
|Enrique Dávalos Herrera||PCSC||3,856||2.40|
|Source: Creeperian National Electoral Integrity Tribunal|
|Ancestors of Antonio José Sáenz y Heredia, 1st Duke of Sáenz|
- Now called the Antonio José Sáenz y Heredia University.
- The Constitution the Creeperian National Military Tribunal abided to was the Constitution which was adopted on 4 October 1949, after the end of the Creeperian Civil War. The Constitution that should have been enforced was the Creeperian Constitution of 1887 but it was disregarded. The judges voted unanimously to uphold the laws of the Creeperian Constitution of 1949 instead of the Creeperian Constitution of 1887.