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Romero I of Creeperopolis

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"Saint Romero" and "San Romero" redirect here. For other uses, see Saint Romero (disambiguation) and San Romero (disambiguation).
Romero I
An official portrait of Romero I, 1935.
An official portrait of Romero I, 1935.
9th Emperor of Creeperopolis
Reign2 January 1933 – 6 July 1946
Coronation15 September 1933
PredecessorAdolfo IV
SuccessorRomero II
Prime Minister(s)
1st Supreme Caudillo of the
Catholic Imperial Restoration Council
Reign2 January 1933 – 6 July 1946
PredecessorPosition established
SuccessorRomero II
43rd Prince of Extremadura
Tenure3 June 1918 – 2 January 1933
PredecessorAdolfo (IV) Martínez Jiménez
SuccessorRomero (II) Martínez Guerrero
EmperorAdolfo IV
Born18 June 1899
San Salvador Imperial Palace,
San Salvador, San Salvador, Creeperopolis
Died6 July 1946(1946-07-06) (aged 47)
Lake San Salvador, north of
San Salvador, Creeperopolis
Burial15 September 1960
Adriana Guerrero Guillén
(m. 1922; his death 1946)
Full name
Romero I Adolfo Carlos de la'Santa Trinidad de San Alfonso y San Miguel Martínez de Jiménez y Galdámez de Águila
HouseHouse of Martínez – Pelayo
FatherAdolfo IV of Creeperopolis
MotherRafaela Galdámez Águila
ReligionCreeperian Catholicism
SignatureRomero I's signature
Military service
Allegiance Imperial Council
Branch/service Romerist Armed Forces
Years of service
  • 1917–1920, 1933–1946
  • (never actively served)
RankCoat of Arms of Creeperopolis.png Commander-in-Chief
Battles/warsCreeperian Civil War

Romero I of Creeperopolis (Creeperian script: Րոմերո Ի;[note 2] full name: Romero I Adolfo Carlos de la'Santa Trinidad de San Alfonso y San Miguel Martínez de Jiménez y Galdámez de Águila;[note 3] 18 June 1899 – 6 July 1946) was the Emperor of Creeperopolis and the Creeperans, Holy Protector of the State of the Church, Emperor of El Salvador, and King of Senvar[note 4] from 1933 until his death in 1946.

The eldest son of Emperor Adolfo IV (reign: 1918–1933) and Empress Consort Rafaela Galdámez Águila, Romero I assumed the throne of Creeperopolis on 2 January 1933, however, his claim to the throne was contested by his younger brother, Prince Miguel. Both claimed the title of Emperor, with Romero I receiving political support from the right-wing Creeperian Conservative Coalition (CCC), while Miguel VII received political support from the left-wing People's Social Coalition (CSP). With the occurrence of a military skirmish in San Salvador del Norte between military factions supporting both claimants, both Romero I and Miguel VII accused the other of attacking first; calling upon the armed forces to rally to their side, the armed forces fractured in half along political ideological lines, beginning the Creeperian Civil War. Upon the beginning of the civil war, he established the Catholic Imperial Restoration Council (CRIC), more commonly referred to as simply the Imperial Council and informally referred to as the Romerists.

He married Adriana Guerrero Guillén and the couple had five children: Princess María, Princess Isabela, Romero, Prince of Extremadura (the future Emperor Romero II; reign: 1946–1976), José, Prince of Extremadura, and Princess Raquel. He was the grandfather of Emperors Adolfo V (reign: 1976–1987), Romero III (reign: 1987–1999), and Alfonso VI (reign: 1999–2003), and the great grandfather of reigning Emperor Alexander II (reign: 2003–present). Since his death and the end of the civil war, Romero I has been revered by Creeperans as a national hero, being posthumously known as Romero the Great.[note 5] In 1955, he was declared a martyr and beatified by Pope Pío XII, and in 1960, he was canonized as a saint by Pope Juan XXIII. Today, Romero I is most commonly referred to in Creeperopolis as San Romero.[note 6]

Historians and political scientists have identified Romero I as one of the most important and influential political figures of the 20th century, and he is revered as a founding father of Creeperopolis' current political system. The right-wing ideology which he helped formulate, Romerism, has become the dominant political force in Creeperopolis. Adopted by the Creeperian Initiative (IRCCN y la'FPPU), Romerism has become the de facto political ideology of the country's government, although, Romerism somewhat competes with other ideologies within the party, including Sáenzism and Illescism, the two ideologies formed by Romero I's two prime ministers who served during his reign: Antonio Sáenz Heredia (term: 1934–1949) and Máximo Illescas Freixa (term: 1932–1934).

The exact role and amount of power weilded by Romero I during his reign is a source of much debate. Several historians have proposed that the military ultimately held national authority throughout his rule, and his reign has been attributed as the beginning the modern dominance of the military in Creeperian politics. Much of the attribution was a result of the shear amount of influence and power weilded by Adolfo and Alfonso Cabañeras Moreno, Romero I's ministers of defense. Other historians, on the other hand, argue that Romero I was the final "true" absolute monarch in Creeperian history, having a much larger role in the political and military affairs of the country not held by an Emperor since Adolfo III did throughout his reign between 1833 and 1887. Regardless of how independent Romero I was in exercising his power, his death and the subsequent succession of his son began the "puppet monarchy" era of Creeperopolis, where the military held the true power of Creeperian government affairs, which continues to this day.

Early life

Romero Adolfo Carlos de la'Santa Trinidad de San Alfonso y San Miguel Martínez de Jiménez y Galdámez de Águila[1] was born on 18 June 1899 in the San Salvador Imperial Palace in San Salvador, the capital city of Creeperopolis and the department of San Salvador.[2] He was baptized eight days after his birth on 26 June in the Cathedral of Christ the King in San Salvador by Archbishop José Viteri Ungo.[2] He was confirmed into the Creeperian Catholic Church on 15 September 1915 at the Cathedral of Christ the King in San Salvador at the age of sixteen by Archbishop Tomás Pineda Saldaña.[3]

His father was Prince Adolfo Martínez Jiménez and his mother was Princess Rafaela Galdámez Águila.[2] His uncles were Emperor Alexander I, who assumed the throne in 1898 following the death of Emperor Maximiliano II, and Alfonso, Prince of Extremadura.[4] He was the great grandson of Emperor Adolfo III, and ultimately, a direct male-line descendant of Alfonso I, the first King of Creeperopolis[note 7] (reign: 1231–1264).[4]

Prince Romero was the second of five children, with his older sister being Princess María (born 1896) and his younger siblings being Prince Miguel (born 1901), Prince Alfonso (born 1903), and Princess Anastasia (born 1907).[5] At the time of his birth, he was fourth in line for the throne of Creeperopolis, after Prince Alfonso, Prince Gustavo Martínez Dávalos, the son of Prince Alfonso, and Prince Adolfo.[6] With the death of Emperor Alexander I on 10 March 1910, Prince Romero's next uncle and Alexander I's younger brother became Emperor Alfonso V.[7]

In 1917, Prince Romero began attending the San Salvador Imperial Military Academy to study military tactics and history.[8] He was reported to have excelled in his studies by Supreme Caudillo Jaime Cabañeras Zapata, the chairman of the military academy.[8] On 19 May 1918, his brother, Prince Alfonso, died to Creeperian Malaria at the age of fourteen, forcing Prince Romero to suspend his studies to attend his brother's funeral on 22 May.[9] Prince Alfonso's death reportedly caused Prince Romero's other brother, Prince Miguel, to question the Creeperian Catholic faith that his entire family, as well as much of the nation, adhered to,[10][11] while it reinforced Prince Romero's faith who believed that it was God's decision to allow Prince Alfonso to die to his illness and that he was in Heaven.[9] Romero I continuously stated throughout his reign that he believed that his brother was watching over him as his guardian angel, stated that he also prayed for his intercessions frequently throughout the civil war.[9]

Prince of Extremadura

Ascension to Prince of Extremadura

On 3 June 1918, Emperor Alfonso V died to Creeperian Malaria, and because his son and heir, Gustavo, Prince of Extremadura, died the previous year on 6 March 1917 in a hunting accident, Prince Romero's father became Emperor Adolfo IV.[12] Upon his father's ascension to Emperor, Prince Romero was bestowed the title of Prince of Extremadura, making him the heir apparent to the throne of Creeperopolis.[12] Alfonso V's death reportedly further increased Prince Miguel's questioning of religion in general, which eventually led him to denounce the Creeperian Catholic faith in 1920 and began to proclaim himself an atheist, the first time a member of the Creeperian royal family had ever became an atheist and the first to become an apostate since Prince Roberto Martínez Rodríguez converted to Senvarian Protestantism in 1624.[13][14] Romero, Prince of Extremadura, was present at Alfonso V's funeral on 10 June, and was formally designated as Prince of Extremadura and heir by his father on 15 September.[15]

After nearly three months away from the military academy, Romero, Prince of Extremadura returned to his studies in July 1918 and reportedly continued to excel in his studies.[16] Following his brother, Prince Miguel began attending the military academy in 1919 and the brothers helped each other in their studies during their time at the military academy.[17] While at the military academy, Prince Romero observed military drills and training operations in San Salvador, San Miguel, Abdan, and the San Carlos Islands.[18] He studied both tactics and history for the army and navy while at the military academy.[16] He graduated from the military academy on 15 September 1920 with the honorary rank of Field Marshal and participated in Creeperopolis' annual military parade in San Salvador in celebration of the Day of the Creeperans.[19] Upon his graduation, his father bestowed upon him the Star of the Imperial Army.[20][21]

Introduction to politics

Prince Romero wearing the Order of the Parliament in 1921.

On 31 December 1921, Prime Minister Inhué Ordóñez Yepes had Prince Romero preside over the session of the parliament, an extraordinary power of the Prince of Extremadura, which is usually done by the Emperor, given upon his graduation from the military academy.[22] During the session, he was awarded the Order of the Parliament (OP) by Ordóñez Yepes, which was heavily protested by the Creeperian Socialist Party (PSC) and Creeperian Social Communist Party (PSCS), both allies of Ordóñez Yepes' National Liberal Party (PLN) and members of the People's Social Coalition (CSP).[21][23] The incident negatively affected Ordóñez Yepes' and the National Liberal Party's popularity among voters of the People's Social Coalition.[24] Ordóñez Yepes died in April 1922, and in the 1922 general election, the National Liberal Party lost twenty-six seats in the parliament, with voters voting instead largely for the Creeperian Socialist Party.[25][26] Additionally, the right-wing to far-right[27] Catholic Royalist Party (PRC) gained the most seats and its leader, Antonio Sáenz Heredia, became prime minister for a third term.[26][28]

Beginning on 31 December 1922, Sáenz Heredia made requests for Prince Romero to attend sessions of the parliament along with Adolfo IV for ceremonial purposes.[29] He continued to attend sessions of the parliament throughout Sáenz Heredia's term as prime minister from 1922 through 1927.[30] Outside of attending sessions of parliament at the request of Sáenz Heredia, Prince Romero generally stayed out of Creeperopolis' political affairs.[31]

Following the Christmas Coup of 1923, Prince Romero condemned the actions of the Creeperian Pro-Fatherland Front (FPPC) and the Camisas Negras (CN) for attempting to overthrow the government.[32][33] Similarly, following the San Pedro Incident of 1925, he condemned the actions of the Action Party for Granilla (PASP) for attempting to overthrow the departmental government of San Pedro.[34][35] He also denounced the violence occurring between the Camisas Negras, the Falange Creeperiano (FC), and the Atheist Red Army (ERA), which has come to be known as the Reigns of Terrors,[36] calling for the demobilization of the paramilitary groups and a peaceful resolution, which was ignored by the three belligerents.[37]

Prior to the 1927 general election, Prince Romero became more vocal about his support for the Creeperian Conservative Coalition (CCC), and especially the Catholic Royalist Party, of which he was a member of,[38][39] by attending Sáenz Heredia's political campaign rallies and publicly endorsing the Catholic Royalist Party.[40] On the contrary, his brother, Prince Miguel, began vocally supporting the People's Social Coalition and the Creeperian Social Communist Party, alienating him from the rest of the royal family and gaining him the support of the People's Social Coalition in return.[41] Some socialists and communists opposed Prince Miguel's support due to their anti-monarchal positions, while many others accepted his support, seeing it as a means to the eventual abolition of the Creeperian monarchy.[42][43] During the election, the Creeperian Socialist Party won thirty-one seats in the parliament, defeating the Catholic Royalist Party by one seat.[44][45] The party's leader, Édgar Cazalla Beldad, became prime minister on 31 December 1927.[45][46]

Crisis of 1928

In January 1928, Cazalla Beldad, who was the first ever member of the Creeperian Socialist Party to serve as prime minister, began efforts to implement socialist economic reforms,[47] blaming the poor socioeconomic status of the majority of Creeperian workers on the economic policies of Sáenz Heredia and Macos Espiga Mina (prime minister: 1892–1902) as intentionally "keeping down" the working class.[48][49] The People's Social Coalition passed the Act to Protect the Workers of Creeperopolis on 3 January by a 51–49 vote, which mandated that all businesses in Creeperopolis had to pay their workers a wage of two pesos per hour,[note 8] give their workers at least two weeks of paid vacation, and prohibited the use of corporal punishment or withholding pay as a disciplinary punishment.[50][51] While Prince Romero held some objections to some aspects of the reforms, while agreeing with other aspects,[52] the Creeperian Conservative Coalition and several of Creeperopolis' largest corporations and monopolies vehemently opposed the reforms.[53] The deadline for the implementation of the reforms was 3 March 1928, exactly two months after the bill was passed.[54]

Antonio Sáenz Heredia was a firm supporter of the monarchy and attempted to seize power during the Crisis of 1928.

In an effort to prevent the enforcement of the bill, Gustavo López Dávalos, the CEO of the National Coffee and Sugar Corporation (CORNACA), hired militants from the Camisas Negras to assassinate Cazalla Beldad.[55] On 7 February, a month after the bill passed, three militants of the Camisas Negras, wearing Atheist Red Army uniforms, stormed the parliament and assassinated Cazalla Beldad by shooting him while he was delivering a speech.[56] The assassins fought with police officers immediately dispatched to the parliament to control the situation, and during the chaos, Sáenz Heredia declared himself as acting prime minister and declared that all of the laws passed by Cazalla Beldad were null and void.[57] The People's Social Coalition protested and condemned Sáenz Heredia's power grab, demanding his immediate resignation, which he eventually did on 10 February following a parliamentary vote to appoint a new prime minister.[58] Prince Romero condemned the violence, stating that "this sort of violence leads to the fall of governments."[59]

Joel Lacasa Campos, a member of the Creeperian Social Communist Party, was elected to replace Sáenz Heredia as prime minister.[60] His selection was condemned by the Creeperian Conservative Coalition, which demanded his immediate resignation.[61] On 23 February, Lacasa Campos had the Atheist Red Army assassinate López Dávalos in revenge for the assassination of Cazalla Beldad.[62] In revenge of López Dávalos's assassination, Sáenz Heredia had the Falange Creeperiano assassinate Lacasa Campos and the family of Cayetano Handel Carpio, the leader of the Atheist Red Army, on 1 March.[63] Throughout the month of March, the Atheist Red Army, Falange Creeperiano, and Camisas Negras all engaged in street battles to intimidate the opposition and voters, and said street battles usually came under suppression from the Civil Police or the Creeperian Army.[64]

Romero, Prince of Extremadura, was deeply concerned and distraught by the violence occurring within the first half of 1928.[65] He reportedly told one of the royal family's servants that he was afraid to speak out and publicly condemn the violence, as he feared alienating the Creeperian Conservative Coalition and increasing the hostility of the People's Social Coalition by making any public condemnations.[66] He has referred to the Crisis of 1928 as the "worst scar in the history of Creeperian democracy" and "a sign that democracy cannot function in the Fatherland."[67] During the civil war, he made remarks stating that he had prayed during the height of the Crisis of 1928 that the political climate in the country became calm for when he would inevitably become Emperor of Creeperopolis.[67]

Buildup to civil war

With the assumption of Tobías Gaos Nores as prime minister on 2 March and the end of martial law in San Salvador on 19 April, a general sense of peace came upon Creeperian politics, however, tensions between far-left and far-right extremists remained present, with various paramilitary groups continuing to patrol the streets to intimidate voters and opponents.[68] Several politicians, military officials, members of the royal family, including Prince Romero,[69] and many civilians believed that the unfolding violence was a prelude and leading to a larger, politically divisive, nation-wide civil war.[70]

In the years following the Crisis of 1928, the amount of street violence between paramilitaries and attacks against politicians decreased with an increased police and military presence in major Creeperian cities,[71] however, when the Creeperopolis national football team lost 0–4 to Tirol during the semifinals of the 1932 Terraconservan Cup, a series of riots erupted in San Salvador, forcing the tournament's final match to be held in Adolfosburg.[72] Additionally, earlier that year in July, Gaos Nores died to Creeperian Malaria, however, some historians have argued that he actually committed suicide due to his involvement in a corruption scandal involving the Ministry of the Treasury.[73][74] José Pardo Barreda, the minister of the treasury, was also implicated in the scandal, however, he denied any involvement and accused Adolfo IV and Prince Romero of conspiring to ruin his and Gaos Nores' reputations.[74][75]

The football riots in San Salvador, high-level political scandal, and previous political violence heavily affected the result of the 1932 general election, leading to a decisive victory for the center-right National Conservative Party (PCN) which won 41 seats.[76] Máximo Illescas Freixa assumed the position of prime minister on 31 December, succeeding Jorge Meléndez Ramírez of the Creeperian Socialist Party who served out the remainder of Gaos Nores' term. He swore that during his administration, "law and order would be restored to the Fatherland" and "peace will once again return to normality."[77]

Reign as Emperor and civil war

Succession crisis

In mid-December 1932, Emperor Adolfo IV and Empress Consort Rafaela both fell ill with Creeperian Malaria and both remained in the San Salvador Imperial Palace to rest and recover from their illnesses.[78][79] Although Empress Consort Rafaela managed to make a full recovery by the end of December, Adolfo IV's condition continued to worsen.[78] His doctors were unable to improve his condition, and on 2 January 1933, three days after the beginning of Illescas Freixa's term as prime minister, Adolfo IV succumbed to his illness at 9:02 a.m. in the San Salvador Imperial Palace,[80] although, a minority of historians and several conspiracy theorists believe that the Emperor and his consort were actually poisoned and that their illnesses were fabrications.[78]

The death of Adolfo IV directly led to the Creeperian Civil War due to a succession crisis between his two eldest sons.

Regardless of the manner in which he died, Adolfo IV's death was publicly announced at 10:01 a.m. by Jorge Gómez Figueroa, the lead physician for the Creeperian royal family, at the Cathedral of Christ the King. There, he announced that Romero, Prince of Extremadura, would succeed his father as Emperor, assuming the name of Romero I.[81][82] Romero I was first notified of his father death and his own ascension to the title of Emperor at 10:30 a.m. by his mother, a priest, and some servants.[83] Romero I accepted the title, and at noon, he gave a short speech at the San Salvador Imperial Palace stating his intentions to help Creeperopolis "heal and move forward" from its recent past of violence.[84] He named his son, one year-old Romero, Prince of La'Victoria, as his heir, bestowing upon him the title of Prince of Extremadura, and that his own younger, brother Prince Miguel, would be given the title of Prince of La'Victoria as second in line to the throne.[85][note 9]

Despite Romero I's assumption as Emperor, the People's Social Coalition, who had seen Romero I as a far-right radical, officially announced that they refused to recognize Romero I as Emperor at 1:11 p.m.[86] Half an hour later, Prince Miguel, who had by now fully aligned himself with the People's Social Coalition,[87] refused to recognize Romero I's proclamation as Emperor and rejected Romero I's bestowment of the title Prince of La'Victoria, instead declared himself to be the legitimate Emperor of Creeperopolis and that Romero I was attempting to usurp his rightful title.[87][88] He began referring to himself as Emperor Miguel VII, despite not being next in line to the throne, but the People's Social Coalition announced their recognition of Miguel VII's claim to the throne regardless.[89][90][note 10] The reason for Miguel VII's disregard for his older brother's rightful claim to the throne has been the source of much debate for historians, with the most prominent theory being that his alienation from the royal family, his political radicalization by the People's Social Coalition, and his strong questioning of Catholicism led him to make an attempt to usurp the throne for himself to advance his own ideals.[91]

With both claimants to the throne now feeling insecure about their claim, both Romero I and Miguel VII ordered the immediate arrest of the other on charges of sedition and conspiracy, and called upon the armed forces to not align themselves with the other.[92][93] Illescas Freixa announced that the parliament recognized Romero I as the legitimate Emperor of Creeperopolis, however, the People's Social Coalition continued to refuse to recognize Romero I, instead, continuing to recognize Miguel VII.[94] Because of the orders given by both claimants, the Creeperian Armed Forces effectively fractured into two factions, those supporting Romero I's claim and those supporting Miguel VII's claim.[95] With tensions high, both military factions began attempting to secure territory in preparation for a perceived inevitable civil war and war of succession, however, both factions were ordered by their respective Emperors to not attack each other.[96]

One such location where both military factions attempted to secure territory was in the city of San Salvador del Norte, where at 7:23 p.m., the 34th Infantry Regiment fractured into two factions supporting both Emperors while securing the primary military barracks in the city, the Coronel Santiago Carpio Quiñónez Military Base.[97] At 7:25 p.m., a shot was heard by both sides, and immediately, both, disregarding their Emperor's orders to not engage, began attacking the other. The ensuing skirmish ended in a victory for the soldiers aligned with Miguel VII, while those loyal to Romero I retreated and secured control of the city's capitol building.[98] It remains unknown to this day who fired the first shot, but nonetheless, the skirmish at San Salvador del Norte began the Creeperian Civil War, which most Creeperian politicians had sought to desperately avoid.[99][100]

In the wake of the skirmish, both sides ordered their loyal soldiers to begin preparations to fight for their Emperor, with Romero I establishing the Catholic Imperial Restoration Council (CRIC) and Miguel VII establishing the National Council for Peace and Order (CNPO), other wise known as the Imperial Council and National Council, or more informal, the Romerists and the Miguelists.[100][101] Both councils were composed of soldiers divided along partisan political lines, with soldiers loyal to Romero I and the Imperial Council generally being right-wing monarchists, conservatives, Catholics, falangists, and fascists, while soldiers loyal to Miguel VII and the National Council generally being left-wing republicans, liberals, atheists and the non-religious, socialists, and communists, with some support from racial and ethnic minorities in the country.[102]

Early war support

JMC Adolfo Cabañeras Moreno, Romero I's most important supporter at the start of the civil war.

At the beginning of the civil war, Romero I gained the support of various influential and prominent politicians, such as Prime Minister Illescas Freixa and former Prime Minister Sáenz Heredia, as well as the support of Carlos Hernández Videla, the leader of the Creeperian Pro-Fatherland Front, Ramón Serrano Suñer, Sáenz Heredia's second-in-command of the Catholic Royalist Party, among other politicians. Most importantly, however, Romero I received the support and loyalty of Supreme Caudillo Adolfo Cabañeras Moreno, the minister of defense and commander of the Creeperian Armed Forces.[103][104] Cabañeras Moreno's support of Romero I led to many military officers, who had no bias in favor of either Romero I or Miguel VII, to join Romero I's side as they saw him as the legitimate heir to the throne.[103] Some military officers, however, held left-leaning views and supported Miguel VII to advance their own political beliefs, and the highest ranking among them, Field Marshal Juan Salinas Figueroa, became the Supreme Caudillo and minister of defense for the National Council.[105]

As well as appointing a new Supreme Caudillo and minister of defense, the National Council also appointed Rolando Rubio Noboa, the leader of the Creeperian Social Communist Party, as its prime minister in opposition to Illescas Freixa.[105] Additionally, the more radical politicians and military officers of the factions declared the abolition of democracy, and despite pleas from moderates within the factions, particularly from the National Liberal and National Conservative parties, both Romero I and Miguel VII declared the indefinite suspension of all democratic activities in Creeperopolis.[106] The office of prime minister being held by two different individuals on different factions of the civil war, with both declaring the other to be illegitimate, the hostilities towards democracy by radical politicians and political parties, and the declarations of both Emperors of the suspension of democracy effectively dissolved the parliament and brought an end to democracy in Creeperopolis after just over 45 years of returning to the country.[107]

Within the first weeks of the civil war's outbreak, Romero I's claim to the throne was recognized by the governments of Atlántida, Castilliano, and the State of the Church.[108] The government of El Salvador also initially recognized Romero I as the legitimate Emperor of Creeperopolis, however, a pro-Miguelist coup on 4 January 1933 deposed the pro-Romerist government of Jordi Sánchez Murillo and withdrew recognition of Romero I, instead recognizing Miguel VII as the legitimate Emperor of Creeperopolis.[109] A new Salvadoran government was established by Tomàs Regalat Esglaó, a Salvadoran professor and politician, who proclaimed the establishment of the State of Granada.[110] The new government named the nation after the Granada River as a part of the National Council's new policy of Secularization, the systematic renaming of traditionally Catholic names to secularized names.[111]

A similar pro-Miguelist coup was attempted in the State of the Church on 8 January 1933, when around 1,500 National Council soldiers from Zapatista marched into the State of the Church and proclaimed the state's abolition.[112][113] They called for the surrender of Pope Pío XI and his renouncement of the Creeperian Catholic faith, demanding that he tell the Creeperian people of the "falsehoods" and "elaborate hoax and conspiracy" of the Creeperian Catholic Church. They also called for him to reject the legitimacy of Romero I's claim to the throne, and to declare that Miguel VII was the legitimate Emperor of Creeperopolis.[113][114] Pope Pío XI denounced the soldiers' demands and announced their excommunications from salvation,[114] and Romerist soldiers who remained loyal to the Pope and the State of the Church arrested or killed most of the invading Miguelist soldiers.[115] Around 900 soldiers were captured, and all of them were crucified throughout January, February, and March 1933 for attacking and questioning the Pope's authority.[116]

By the beginning of February 1933, the Imperial Council and pro-Romerist forces controlled the departments of La'Unión, the San Carlos Islands, San Miguel, San Pedro, Xichútepa, San Salvador, Santa Ana, and Zapatista, as well of controlling the client state of the State of the Church. On the other hand, the National Council and pro-Miguelist forces controlled the departments of Abdan, Adolfosburg, Helam, Jakiz, La'Libertad, San Luís, San Salvador del Norte, Senvar, and Sonsatepan, as well as controlling the client state of El Salvador.[117][note 11] Throughout the war, Romero I's government sought to increase morale and support for his rule within the territories the Imperial Council controlled by spreading pro-Romerist propaganda, in which he was portrayed as the defender of the Fatherland and of a Catholic identity.[118]

Solidification of power

Right-wing politicians and military officers swearing their loyalty to Romero I in San Salvador in March 1933.

By mid-1933, Romero I's position as the leader of the Imperial Council was effectively solidified, with most of Creeperopolis' right-wing movements supporting his claim to the throne. A fringe minority of right-wing groups, such as right-wing political Deltinians and even some right-wing political Salvadorans, opposed Romero I's reign but also opposed the claim of Miguel VII, effectively making them separatist advocates. Meanwhile, practically all left-wing groups within Creeperopolis opposed Romero I's reign, either siding with the National Council or advocating for separation from Creeperopolis, such as political Senvarians.[119] In March 1933, Romero I ordered that all politicians, military officers, and soldiers who sided with the Imperial Council must swear an oath of loyalty to him.[120] The oath, later known as the Romerist Oath, reads:

Original oath text
Lo'juro'l Señor, el único Dios de verdad,
Que yo voy a rendir completamente y total obediencia,
Al Su Majestad Imperial, Emperador Romero,
El Caudillo de la'Patria yel Pueblo Creeperiano,
El sucedor del Rey Felipe, Rey Alfonso, y Rey Miguel,
El sucedor del Tlatoani Axayacatl y Emperador Adolfo,
Que yo debo, por'todo'l eternidad, hacer leal a él,
Hasta'l punto de muerte, y más allá enel Cielo eterno.
Lyoan translation
I swear the Lord, the one true God,
That I shall render complete and total obedience,
To His Imperial Majesty, Emperor Romero,
The Leader of the Fatherland and the Creeperian People,
The successor of King Felipe, King Alfonso, and King Miguel,
The successor of Tlatoani Axayacatl and Emperor Adolfo,
That I shall, for all of eternity, be loyal to him,
To the point of death, and beyond in eternal Heaven.

In an effort to crackdown on potential dissent against his rule within Imperial Council controlled territories, Romero I ordered the establishment of the National Intelligence Directorate (DINA) on 26 April 1933 to serve as the Imperial Council's secret police and intelligence agency.[121][122] The DINA's primary objectives were to crackdown on any political or military dissent against his rule and to disrupt any sabotage operations being carried out against the Imperial Council's military operations. In addition, the DINA was also tasked with carrying out intelligence gathering against the National Council and to carry out sabotage operations of its own against the National Council's military efforts. Romero I established the Ministry of Intelligence (MININT) to oversee the DINA and appointed Cabañeras Moreno as the first minister of intelligence and de facto director of the DINA.[123][124] With his appointment, Cabañeras Moreno became the second most important figure of the Imperial Council, after Romero I, as he was now serving as its Supreme Caudillo and minister of intelligence.[125]

From April to September 1933, the DINA arrested an estimated 800 politicians, military officers, and soldiers under suspicion of disloyalty to Romero I and the Imperial Council. Even civilians were arrested by the DINA under suspicions of disloyalty and expressing pro-Miguelist sympathies. Although the exact number of arrests during this period is unknown, modern estimates place the figure of civilians arrested between 500 and 1,500.[126] Many of those arrested were tried for treason and sedition, found guilty, and summarily executed by firing squad shortly after the conclusions of the their trials. Many were also tortured throughout their captivity.[127] These early arrests, torture, and executions helped gain the DINA its reputation of being a brutal and feared Creeperian government institution, and the Imperial Council utilized its reputation to instill fear in its subjects to maintain complete loyalty and crush disloyalty within its controlled territories.[128]

In November 1933, a Romerist a division under the command of Lieutenant General Rodolfo Fernández Joss captured the cities of Tuxtla Martínez and Panachor in the department of Zapatista, and during the capture of the cities, the division also captured a National Council prisoner-of-war camp which was under construction.[129] The ministries of defense, law enforcement, and intelligence saw the potential the camp held and ordered the battalion to complete construction of the camp. The camp was completed in February 1934 and was named the Tuxtla Martínez–Panachor Maximum Correctional Facility (TMP) and began housing National Council prisoners-of-war and political dissidents who spoke out against the authority of Romero I and the Imperial Council.[130] Many of those imprisoned were soldiers of the National Council or the State of Granada, but beginning in late-1934, many ethnic Senvarians began being sent to TMP due to their involvement with the Senvarian Liberation Front (SKBF) and the Third Senvarian Insurgency, which sought the total independence of the department of Senvar from Creeperopolis in an effort to reestablish the Kingdom of Senvar.[131]

Reign during the mid-1930s

On 9 September 1934, Romero I dismissed Illescas Freixa as his prime minister, making him the first monarch in Creeperian history to dismiss a prime minister from his position. Illescas Freixa was dismissed as Romero I believed that he did not express a strong enough rhetoric against the National Council, and in his place, Romero I appointed Sáenz Heredia as prime minister for an unprecedented fifth term as one of his most vocal supporters and most staunch anti-Miguelists.[132] Upon taking office, Sáenz Heredia swore that "Miguelism will be eradicated and all its followers will be eliminated."[133]

Romero I (center right) with loyal military commanders in 1937.

Beginning of the De-Catholization

Welcoming of foreign support

Romero I with Serrano Suñer (left) and Sandro Neri (right) in 1945.

Imperial Council gains in the early-1940s

Siege of San Salvador

Personal life


Romero, Prince of Extremadura, with Adriana, Princess of Extremadura, on their wedding day on 1 March 1922.

Then Prince Romero married Adriana Guerrero Guillén, the daughter of Antonio Guerrero Menéndez, the captain general of San Salvador at the time, on 1 March 1922.[134] He was 22 years old and she was 21 years old.[134] The marriage ceremony occurred in the San Salvador Imperial Palace, with the ceremony being presided over by Pineda Saldaña, who had since been elevated as a cardinal.[135] Several prominent politicians and religious officials were in attendance, including Adolfo IV, Ordóñez Yepes, Sáenz Heredia, Guerrero Menéndez, Espiga Mina, and Pope Pío XI.[136]

The marriage was arranged as a political reward to Guerrero Menéndez for supporting Sáenz Heredia during his second term as prime minister, and to ensure his continued support during his third term as prime minister.[137] The arrangement and effective political bribe was controversial at the time, with various politicians of the People's Social Coalition denouncing the marriage as a corrupt political favor, however, the controversy has since been disregarded and considered a "non-issue" by subsequent Creeperian historians.[138]

Issue and descendants

Romero I and Empress Consort Adriana had five children, four of whom survived to adulthood, and one of whom, Romero II Vicente Alexander de la'Santa Trinidad de San Alfonso y San Miguel Martínez de Galdámez y Guerrero de Guillén, succeeded Romero I as Emperor of Creeperopolis and the Creeperans, Holy Protector of the State of the Church, Emperor of El Salvador, and King of Senvar.[139] Through his children, Romero I had seventeen grandchildren, although, only one was born during his lifetime.[140] His most notable great grandchild is Alexander II, the current reigning Emperor of Creeperopolis, through Romero II and Alfonso VI.[29]

Issue of Emperor Romero I and Empress Consort Adriana[140]
Name Portrait Lifespan Marriage Issue
María Claudia
Martínez y Guerrero
de Hernández
Princess María Claudia Anastasia de Romero y Adriana Martínez de Galdámez y Guerrero de Menéndez
8 March 1924

8 January 2008
(aged 83)
Rodolfo Alberto
Hernández y Dávalos

(m. 1943–1993)
Prince Alfonso
Princess Guadeloupe
Prince Romero
Princess Carmen
Isabela Juana
Martínez y Guerrero
Princess Isabela Juana María de Romero y Adriana Martínez de Galdámez y Guerrero de Menéndez
29 October 1927

3 August 1945
(aged 17)
Romero II Vicente
Martínez y Guerrero

[note 12]
Emperor Romero II Vicente Alexander de la'Santa Trinidad de San Alfonso y San Miguel Martínez de Galdámez y Guerrero de Menéndez
18 September 1930

11 November 1976
(aged 46)
Empress Consort
María Fátima
Escobar y Gutiérrez
de Martínez

(m. 1950–1976)
Princess Anastasia
Emperor Adolfo V
Emperor Romero III
Emperor Alfonso VI
Princess María
Princess Cassandra
José Alexander
Martínez y Guerrero

[note 13]
Prince José Alexander Alfonso de San Alfonso y San Miguel Martínez de Galdámez y Guerrero de Menéndez
3 February 1932

3 July 1992
(aged 60)
Angelina María
Ramírez y López
de Martínez

(m. 1954–1992)
Prince Adolfo
Prince Carlos
Princess Rubí
Princess Leonora
Prince Felipe
Prince Vicente
Raquel Alexandra
Martínez y Guerrero
de Mendoza
Princess Raquel Alexandra Julia de Romero y Adriana Martínez de Galdámez y Guerrero de Menéndez
23 December 1938

(age 85)
Carlos Alexander
Mendoza y Fuentes

(m. 1960–2011)
Prince Cristóbal
Princess Verónica
Princess Gabriela
Prince Antonio
Princess Xihomara
Shortened form of names listed (given name, middle name, paternal surname, maternal surname, marital name).

Claims of illegitimate children

Due to the importance of Romero I in modern Creeperian history, several individuals have publicly claimed to be illegitimate children of Romero I, born to a different mother from Empress Consort Adriana.[141] During the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, around 50 to 60 individuals who publicly claimed to be illegitimate children of Romero I were arrested, tortured, and sentenced to prison by the Creeperian government.[142] All of the known individuals arrested for claiming to be illegitimate descendants of Romero I were charged will blasphemy and committing Mal'l Rey, both of which are capital offenses and punishable by death.[143]

Involvement in football

Prince Romero at Creeperopolis' inaugural match against Quebecshire at the 1932 Terraconservan Cup.

Romero I was an avid fan of association football. From a young age, he grew a passion for the sport and he played on youth teams during his childhood.[144] When then Prince Romero attended the San Salvador Imperial Military Academy, he played as a center back for the military academy's football program, known as the Soldados Militares.[145] With the program, he won an ANFCC title in 1919.[146] Throughout his time playing for the Soldados Militares, Prince Romero played 109 matches and scored 8 goals.[147]

Appearances and goals by club, season and competition
Club Season League Postseason Total
Division Apps Goals Apps Goals Apps Goals
SS Military Academy Soldados Militares 1917 ANFCC 17 0 2 0 19 0
1918 27 2 2 0 29 2
1919 28 3 3 0 31 3
1920 28 2 2 1 30 3
Total 100 7 9 1 109 8

Romero I was a fan of CF Nuevo Xichútepa, as he bore the same name as the city.[148][note 14] The club, however, never won or appeared a Copa Creeperiano during his lifetime, only winning its first title and making its first appearance in 1954.[149] On the international stage, Romero I supported the Creeperopolis national team.[148] He was present at the team's victories in the 1921, 1927, 1929, and 1931 Hispanic Cups, the 1922, 1926, and 1930 Copa Surs, and the 1928 Terraconservan Cup. He was also present at the opening ceremony for the 1932 Terraconservan Cup, where Creeperopolis came in third place.[150] In 1936, he congratulated the Imperial Council squad which played three matches against the National Council in Karimun in protest of the Terraconservan Cup's decision to ban Creeperopolis for the 1936 Terraconservan Cup due to riots which occurred in the country during the 1932 cup. Romero I stated that Creeperopolis was the rightful champion of the 1936 cup and that the ban was unjustified.[151]


Romero I at a Catholic Royalist Party rally in San Romero in 1937.

Politically, Romero I was a member of Catholic Royalist Party, a right-wing to far-right political party,[27] from 1921 until his death in 1946.[38] Upon his ascension as Emperor, he became the fifth consecutive Emperor to be a member of the Catholic Royalist Party,[152] although, he did initially consider joining the center-right National Conservative Party.[22] He opposed the far-right Creeperian Pro-Fatherland Front since its attempt to overthrow the government in 1923,[31] however, he began to tolerate the party with the beginning of the civil war in 1933.[153][154]

Romero I was an absolute monarchist, a Catholic theocrat, a National Catholic,[38] being listed by the Creeperian government as an official National Catholic theorist and founder,[27] a social conservative, and vehemently anti-communist and anti-atheist. His exact economic positions are disputed, however, it is generally agreed upon by historians that Romero I generally aligned himself with right-wing and capitalist economics before the civil war,[22] while during the civil war, he had the government take control of virtually all aspects of the economy as a part of the war effort.[155]

Romero I's political ideologies and economic policies have since been collectively known as the far-right ideology of Romerism,[156] a term which was coined in late-1946 by Sáenz Heredia.[157] Romerism has been adopted by the leading political forces in Creeperopolis following the conclusion of the Creeperian Civil War and a Romerist identity has been promoted to unite the Creeperian people under one united political movement.[158] Political parties and entities which have adopted Romerism as an ideology include the Nationalist Creeperian Catholic Royal Initiative and the Pro-Fatherland Front of Unification (IRCCN y la'FPPU; Creeperian Initiative), the sole legal political party of Creeperopolis, the Romerist Nationalist Front (NRF), the Workers' Romerist Organization (ORT), the Society of Romerist Women (SMR), the Young Creeperans (JÓCRE), and the Romerist Students (ESCRE).[159]


Romero I with José Mena Godines, the archbishop of San Salvador, in 1945.

Throughout his life, Romero I was a devout Creeperian Catholic, and during the civil war, one of the objectives of the Imperial Council was to protect the Catholic identity of Creeperopolis which it saw as being at risk of being destroyed by the atheist National Council.[160]

Relationship with Miguel VII

Prince Romero (left) with Prince Miguel (right) in April 1923.

The exact nature of the relationship between Romero I and Miguel VII is highly debated and extremely controversial, especially within Creeperopolis.[161]

Death, state funeral, and burial

Operation Destroy Everything

The last known photo taken of Romero I, disembarking to board the BIC La'Victoria on the day of his death.
The burning, floating wreckage of the BIC La'Victoria before she was scuttled.

Private funeral and burial

Internment at the Cathedral of Christ the King

State funeral and burial

The chapel of the Valley of the Fallen, where Romero I is buried.


Emperor, Saint, & Martyr

Romero I

A posthumous painting of Emperor Romero I (1956).
A posthumous painting of Emperor Romero I (1956).
Emperor of Creeperopolis and the Creeperans
Emperor of all Catholics
Venerated inCreeperian Catholic Church
Beatified6 July 1955, San Pedro's Basilica, San Salvador del Oeste, State of the Church by Pope Pío XII
Canonized15 September 1960, San Pedro's Basilica, San Salvador del Oeste, State of the Church by Pope Juan XXIII
Major shrineValley of the Fallen
Feast30 September
AttributesImperial garments, Imperial Crown of Creeperopolis, Imperial Cross of San Romero the Martyr, Imperial Order of Romerism
PatronageCreeperopolis, Creeperian Catholics, San Salvador, Monarchy of Creeperopolis, martyred Catholics, oppressed and persecuted Catholics
ControversyWar crimes, crimes against humanity, White Terror, human rights abuses, concentration camps
InfluencesAlfonso I, Miguel I, Carlos III, Martyrs of the Creeperian Civil War
InfluencedMartyrs of the Creeperian Civil War, Romero Galdámez Alas

Efforts for canonization



War crimes

Use of concentration camps

Crimes against humanity and human rights abuses

Attitudes towards religious and ethnic minorities

Political repression


Importance in Creeperian history and politics

A Romerist demonstration in San Salvador in 1951 led by the Creeperian Initiative.

Posthumous cult of personality

A Creeperian classroom in the 1960s with portraits of Romero I and Romero II.


In propaganda

Things named after Romero I

A statue of Romero I in San Salvador.
Buildings and infrastructure
Military units
  • 14th Creeperian Army – Ejército de Emperador San Romero I The 14th Creeperian Army is nicknamed the Ejército de Emperador San Romero I (translated as the Army of Emperor Saint Romero I).
  • 33rd Creeperian Army – Ejército de Romeristos The 33rd Creeperian Army is nicknamed the Ejército de Romeristos (translated as the Army of Romerists).
  • The 1st Infantry Battalion is nicknamed the Batallón de San Romero (translated as the Battalion of Saint Romero).[note 15]

The city of Nuevo Xichútepa, and the department of Xichútepa, have often been erroneously attributed to be named after Romero I. The city of San Romero was established in 712AD and given the name "San Romero" in 1258, being named after Saint Romero of Al-Kifal who was martyred by the Caliphate of Deltino in 1234 during the Creeperian Crusade. Likewise, the department was renamed after the same Saint Romero in 1258.


In popular culture



Titles, styles, honors, and arms

Titles and styles

Imperial styles of
Romero I of Creeperopolis
Coat of arms of Romero I
Reference styleHis Imperial Majesty
Spoken styleYour Imperial Majesty
Alternative styleSir

Romero I's complete title as Emperor was:[162]

"By the Grace of the Lord, our God, His Imperial Majesty Romero I Adolfo Carlos la'Santa Trinidad de San Alfonso y San Miguel Martínez de Jiménez y Galdámez de Águila, Emperor of Creeperopolis and the Creeperans, Emperor of all Catholics, Holy Protector of the State of the Church, Emperor of El Salvador, King of Senvar, Archduke of Abdan, Archduke of Adolfosburg, Archduke of Helam, Archduke of Jakiz, Archduke of La'Libertad, Archduke of La'Unión, Archduke of Salvador, Archduke of the San Carlos Islands, Archduke of San Luís, Archduke of San Miguel, Archduke of San Pedro, Archduke of Xichútepa, Archduke of San Salvador, Archduke of San Salvador del Norte, Archduke of Santa Ana, Archduke of Senvar, Archduke of Sonsatepan, Archduke of Zapatista, Protector of Adolfo III Land and of the Southern World, Presider of the Parliament of the Fatherland."

Before Romero I became Emperor, he also bore the titles:[163]

His Imperial Highness Romero, Prince of Creeperopolis (18 June 1899 – 6 March 1917)
His Imperial Highness Romero, Prince of La'Victoria (6 March 1917 – 3 June 1918)
His Imperial Highness Romero, Prince of Extremadura (3 June 1918 – 2 January 1933)

Awards and decorations

A painting of Emperor Romero I (1945).
Creeperian decorations[21]


Foreign national decorations[164]



 El Salvador



 State of the Church

Foreign dynastic decorations[164]

Wappen Gefürstete Grafschaft Tirol.png House of Cerneu

Coat of Arms of Castilliano Kingdom.png House of Hernández

Military ranks

  • SS.OO.11.EJER.GENERAL DE EJERCITO.svg Field Marshal; 15 September 1920[19]
  • Coat of Arms of Adolfo III of Creeperopolis.png Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Armed Forces; 2 January 1933 – 6 July 1946
  • Coat of Arms of Adolfo III of Creeperopolis.png Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Army; 2 January 1933 – 6 July 1946
  • Coat of Arms of Adolfo III of Creeperopolis.png Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Navy; 2 January 1933 – 6 July 1946
  • Coat of Arms of Adolfo III of Creeperopolis.png Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Air Force; 2 January 1933 – 6 July 1946
  • Coat of Arms of Adolfo III of Creeperopolis.png Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Guard; 2 January 1933 – 6 July 1946



See also

Creeperopolis portal
Terraconserva portal


  1. Romero I was originally buried in the Cathedral of Christ the King, San Salvador, San Salvador, Creeperopolis, on 25 December 1949. Before then, he was buried in a discreet location in the department of Santa Ana.
  2. Creeperian pronunciation: [ˈɾo(-l) priˈme.ɾo].
  3. Creeperian script: Րոմերո Ի Ադոլֆո Ծարլոս դե լա'Սանտա Տրինիդադ դե Սան Ալֆոմսո յ Սան Միգփել Մարտձնեզ դե Ջիմէմեզ յ Գալդըմեզ դե Ըգփիլա; Creeperian pronunciation: [ˈɾo(-l) priˈme.ɾo aˈð ˈkaɾ.los de laˈsan.ta ˈðad de san alˈ i san miˈɣel maɾˈti.nez de xiˈme.nez i galˈða.mez de aˈɣ].
  4. Reigned as: Römer I of Senvar (Senvarian form of Romero); Senvarian pronunciation: [ˈrœm̩.ɛʁ deːʁ ˈtsvaɪ.tɛ].
  5. Creeperian – Creeperian: Րոմերո'լ Գրամդե; Creeperian – Iberic: Romero'l Grande; Creeperian pronunciation: [ˈɾo-l ˈ].
  6. Creeperian: Սան Րոմերո; Creeperian pronunciation: [san ˈɾo]; Creeperian for: Saint Romero.
  7. Alfonso I used the title King of the Creeperans, with "King of Creeperopolis" being a subsequent reference.
  8. This was considered extremely high for the time, as the average worker could expect to earn only one peso per day.
  9. Prince Miguel had already had the title "Prince of La'Victoria" between 3 June 1918, the day Prince Romero became Prince of Extremadura, and 18 September 1930, the date that Prince Romero's son was born.
  10. Despite being generally anti-monarchist, the People's Social Coalition recognized Miguel VII's claim to the throne as a sort of "means to an end" in advancing their political cause. Overtime, some Creeperian communists became actual monarchists which communist ideals, which has since led to several communist movements in Sur being communist in nature.
  11. As a part of the National Council's policy of Secularization, the names of the following departments were changed: Noboa (Salvador), Carlos Marx Islands (San Carlos Islands), Cazalla (San Luís), Emperador Miguel (San Miguel), Isla del Sur (San Pedro), Cayetano (San Romero), Departamento del Centro (San Salvador), La'Estrella (San Salvador del Norte), and Lasca (Santa Ana). The client state of El Salvador was also renamed to Granada, while the State of the Church was intended to be abolished, and as such, did not receive a name change.
  12. Prince of Extremadura: 2 January 1933 – 6 July 1946; succeeded Romero I to the crowns of Creeperopolis, the State of the Church, El Salvador, and Senvar; reigned 6 July 1946 – 11 November 1976.
  13. Prince of Extremadura: 6 July 1946 – 9 March 1962.
  14. A common misconception held by non-Creeperans is that the city and department of San Romero are named after Romero I, however, both entities are actually named after Saint Romero of Al-Kifal who was martyred during the Creeperian Crusade in 1234.[4]
  15. The 1st Infantry Battalion is a part of the Black Division (1st Infantry Division), the elite forces of the Creeperian Army.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 Posthumously awarded.
  17. Coat of arms of the Emperor of Creeperopolis.



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Further reading

External links

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Romero I of Creeperopolis
Cadet branch of the House of Martínez
Born: 18 June 1899 Died: 6 July 1946
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Adolfo IV
Emperor of Creeperopolis and the Creeperans
Succeeded by
Romero II
Preceded by
Adolfo III
Holy Protector of the State of the Church
Preceded by
Adolfo II
Emperor of
El Salvador

King of Senvar
Creeperian royalty
Preceded by
Adolfo II
Prince of Extremadura
Succeeded by
Romero II
Political offices
New office Supreme Caudillo of the
Catholic Imperial
Restoration Council

Succeeded by
Romero II
Military offices
Preceded by
Adolfo IV
Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces
Succeeded by
Romero II
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Adolfo II
Presider of the Parliament
Succeeded by
Romero II