1934 Castillianan coup d'état
|1934 Castillianan coup d'état|
|Part of the Creeperian Civil War|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Casualties and losses|
In the 1933 Castillianan general election, the Liberal Socialist Party's (PSL) Ángel Lancóme e Reinas won a plurality in the Parliament of Castilliano, and with the Coalition of the United Social Left (CISX), the left-wing Workers United coalition held a majority at 120 of the 232 seats. The election was protested by the right-wing Castillianan Coalition of Autonomous Rights (CCDA) and the centrist National Centrist Republican Party (PRCN) since no election results were posted, despite there being no results posted after the PRCN's victory in the 1925 general election and after the CCDA's victory following the 1929 general election.
The day following the election, the Creeperian Civil War erupted in the neighboring nation of Creeperopolis between the far-right Catholic Imperial Restoration Council (CRIC or Romerists) and the far-left National Council for Peace and Order (CNPO or Miguelists). On 4 January, Prime Minister Patricio Curbelo Salinas declared Castillianan neutrality in the conflict, despite his party, the CCDA, being in heavy support for the Romerists. His decision was heavily protested by the CCDA but it was accepted by the PRCN, the PSL, and the CISX, however, the PSL and the CISX were in support for the Miguelists. Lancóme e Reinas assumed the Premiership on 24 March 1933 and immediately reaffirmed Castilliano's neutrality, although, his government did politically support the Miguelists. His government refused to send any direct aid to the Miguelists as he did not want to get Castilliano involved in the civil war which be believed would unnecessarily cost Castillianan lives.
On 7 May 1934, the Castillianan Army staged a coup d'état against Lancóme e Reinas' government. General Óscar Benléu e Laréira declared removal of and arrest of Lancóme e Reinas as Prime Minister, the suspension of the Constitution of 1901, the institution of martial law, the dissolution of the Parliament, and the suspension of political activities. He also declared that the coup had the support of King José X and he promoted himself to the rank of Field Marshal, a title rarely held in Castillianan history. The coup was heavily protested by all four political parties of the Parliament, even by the CCDA, despite the Army being dominated by right-wing ideologies and sympathies.
On 10 May 1934, Benléu e Laréira declared that Castilliano would begin militarily and diplomatically supporting the Romerists in the Creeperian Civil War, which gained his military government the support of the CCDA, and to an extent, the remnants of the Neo-Saelicist Renewed Nationalist Front for the Fatherland (FRNP). The decision was heavily protested by the three remaining political parties, and around 50,000 civilians marched in the streets in protest not only against the coup and the military government, but also against the decision to join the war.
On 15 May 1934, a riot erupted in Chalatenango, the capital city of Castilliano. The riot was incited by Eusebio Lancóme e Moléu, the leader of the CISX, who called for rioters to overthrow Benléu e Laréira, cancel Castilliano's participation in the Creeperian Civil War, the the scheduling of snap elections for 1 January 1935 to reelect the Parliament. The rioters burned down the headquarters of the CCDA and attacked several government and military buildings. The Army and Police used live ammunition in an attempt to quell the riot. The riot ensued for three days, and after it was crushed, around 3,419 people died, another 5,128 were injured, and another 4,229 were arrested. Lancóme e Moléu himself evaded capture and fled for exile in Creeperopolis under the shelter of the Miguelists. Lancóme e Reinas was suspected of having a role in the riot, but there was not enough sufficient evidence to prove so as he was still in prison during the riot.
Despite the riot being crushed, Benléu e Laréira agreed to hold an election, but at the originally scheduled date of 1 January 1937. He would complete Lancóme e Reinas' term and serve until 24 March 1937. Protests continued throughout Benléu e Laréira's term as he continued to support the Romerists without the approval of Parliament. In October 1936, Benléu e Laréira disqualified the CISX from participating in the election since Lancóme e Moléu was still officially its leader. The decision was met by protests which were promptly crushed by the Army and Police. Luís Sanchés e Cerro won the 1937 Castillianan general election in what was one of the most fraudulent elections in Terraconservan history.