Politics of Terranihil
|Polity type||Unitary dominant-party semi-presidential republic|
|Formation||9 February 1868|
|Meeting place||İlsamıa Palace|
|Presiding officer||Demrina Ŧeira, Prime Minister|
|Head of State|
|Head of Government|
|Name||Cabinet of Terranihil|
|Current cabinet||Armǎk cabinet|
|Deputy leader||Laıs Upast|
|Headquarters||Palace of Cecilia|
|Name||Judiciary of Terranihil|
Terranihil is a unitary dominant-party semi-presidential republic. Executive power is vested in the president and the cabinet, and legislative power is vested in the Havrtarsh or parliament and the prime minister. The nation's politics have been dominated by the National Progressive Party (PPF) since 1938.
The de jure framework outlined by the Terranilian Consitution and in practice from the Republic's establishment in 1868 to 1914 was essentially a parliamentary republic in which the parliament is the most powerful instutition and the prime minister the most powerful individual. However, after reforms in the early and mid-1900s, it shifted to become a semi-presidential republic, with the president gaining more leeway.
Since 1938, the National Progressive Party has dominated Terranilian politics, essentially making the nation a one-party state. The party's ideology and goals have significantly changed over the years, as internal party power struggles have led to new leadership taking control of the party and thus the government under the name of the same party.
The president is elected every four years via a two-round voting system in which the president must recieve a majority of votes, either in the multi-candidate first round or in the second round after all candidates but two have been eliminated. The parliament has 480 seats and Members of Parliament are elected via a combination of single transferable vote and general ticket voting. Justices on the Constutional Court are appointed by the prime minister and approved by parliament, while justices on the Supreme Court are appointed by the president and approved by parliament.
The Terranilian Parliament was established in 1683 to serve as the legislative body of the Terranilian Empire. It originally had 60 members, five for each of the twelve governorates. After the division of each governorate into five districts 1803, the Parliament was expanded to 120 seats in 1804, adding a seat for each district.
After the end of the Terranilian Civil War in 1868, the parliament, the governors, and other top officials rewrote the constitution. They increased the seats of the parliament from 120 to 360, adding four more seats per district. Members of Parliament were elected every four years via a single transferable vote system. Parliament would elect a prime minister who acted as the head of government. The new constitution also established the role of the president. The original presidential powers and responsibilities included acting as a national leader in a ceremonial capacity, foreign relations, approving parliamentary appointments, and acting as commander-in-chief. The President was supposed to have limited participation in politics, with their powers being mostly reserved for approvals and war time. The President was allowed increased power during states of emergency. They are elected in a two-round voting process.
Terranilian politics was initially dominated by the Republican Party, which was composed of most of the Republican faction during the civil war. Several other parties emerged, with the Reform Party becoming the second largest party. The Reformists aimed at increasing presidential power, while the Republicans wanted to maintain the high authority of the parliament and prime minister.
In 1914, parliament voted to add 120 more seats that are not related to a constituency. Voters vote for a party rather than candidates and seats are allocated proportionally to each party via a divisor method. Several new parties emerged, including the National Movement and the Communist Party of Terranihil. In 1920, the Liberal Democratic Party split from the Republican Party. There was not a single party with a majority in parliament.
The Liberal Democratic Party, which used the 1928 Terranilian Coup d'état to suppress the growing left-wing People's Alliance, instituted changes that led to the republic's shift from a parliamentary republic to a semi-presidential one. The president's powers were greatly increased from 1928 to 1936. After the Ashura Coup in 1936 and the Restoration Revolution in 1937, democratic elections were generally reinstated. The National Progressive Party won the presidency in 1938. It passed the Election Reform Act of 1947, which changed the election method of the 120 national seats to a general ticket method where the party with the most votes wins all 120 seats. This was seen by the opposition as an attack on the parliaments proportional democratic nature.
The PPF has remained in power since, but several internal power changes have occurred. The PPF following the Election Reform Act of 1947 has suppressed opposition and singificantly reduced civil freedoms. In 1952, the party's original high officers were purged by younger officers with military support in the Young Officers' Coup. From then until 1974, power in the PPF was in tug-of-war between the Young Officers and the military. Then in 1974, the Corrective Movement took control of the party and government and has remained the ruling group since.
The executive branch consists of the president and prime minister. The prime minister was initially dominant, but the president became the top official after a series of reforms following the 1928 Terranilian Coup d'état.
The president is the head of state. The constitutionally outlined powers of the president are approving some of parliament's and the prime minister's appointments, granting pardons, appointing supreme court justices, and commanding the Armed Forces. In times of emergency, the president is also allowed to use security forces to protect civilians and nation's intitutions. The president also often acted as a top foreign dignitary and played multiple ceremonial roles. Following the Liberal Democratic Party's reforms, the President was given the power to pass presidential decrees, which can be overturned by parliament, and the power to veto parliamentary bills, which can also be overturned. These changes have led most scholars to classify Terranihil as a semi-presidential republic.
The president is elected every four years through a two-round voting system. In the first round, all candidates who qualified appear on the ballot. If no candidate receives a simple majority, the second round proceeds between the two candidates with the most votes in the first round. The presidential term limit was originally two, but it was extended to three in 1934 and then to five in 1987. They can be impeached for misconduct by a two-thirds vote in parliament.
The prime minister is the head of government. The constitution gives them the power to chair the cabinet and appoint its directors, appoint court justices, guide legislation, and ensure domestic security. From the beginning of the republic until the 1930s, the prime minister was the main leader of Terranihil. However, after the president was granted more powers, the role of prime minister was reduced to one of directing legislation. The prime minister is elected every four years by the parliament in a two-round system in which a candidate must receive a majority. If there is a tie, a third round of voting that includes the president as the tie breaker is held. The prime minister must have the confidence of the parliament to remain in office, meaning a motion of no confidence initiated by at least 24 MPs can remove a prime miinister before the scheduled end of their term if it gains a majority. There is no term limit for the prime minister.
The Teranilian cabinet, which consists of 12 departments led by directors, is the chief executive body of Terranihil.
Legislative power is vested in the Havrtarsh. It is a unicameral body of 480 members. Its seats are divided into three tiers: 60 governatorial seats (5 for each of the 12 governorates), 300 district seats (5 for each of the 60 districts), and 120 national seats.
All seats are up for election every four years. The governatorial and ditrict tier seats are elected by each of the constituency's citizens with a single transferable vote system in which voters rank their top 5 candidates. The 120 national seats were originally proportionally distributed to each party based on the number of votes, but following the Election Reform Act of 1947, all 120 national seats are given to the party that receives the most votes.
The Supreme Court of Terranihil is the highest apellate court in the nation. It has 13 justices, who are appointed by the president and approved by parliament. The Constitutional Court interprets the constitution and decides the constitutional validity of laws and government actions. It also has 13 justices, but they are appointed by the prime minister and approved by parliament.
Terranihil originally had an ideologically diverse multi-party system. Since the National Progressive Party took power, it has dominated the Terranilian political system. There are still several minor parties, though they generally fall in line with the PPF on key issues. Official registry for parties is strictly regulated, which prevents legitmate oppositional parties from being established.
Terranihil is divided into 12 governorates. The governor or governor-minister of each acts as the executive, and is chosen by the popularly elected governatorial assembly. Though Terranihil has always been a unitary state, some governorates historically have been alowed greater autonomy than others, often because of local ethnic or religious nationalism. This autonomy has been curbed back in many instances since the 1970s.
Each governorate is divided into 5 districts for a total of 60 districts. Each district has an elected assembly, which chooses a district-minister. Districts are divided into counties, for a total of 356 counties. County officials are appointed by the district-minister.