Tirol

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Free State of Tirol

Fraestat Tirol
Motto: "Per nobiltà i lege"
Lyoan: "By Nobility and Law"
Anthem: 
Tirol Orthographic.png
Location of Tirol in North-East Ecros
CapitalInnsbruck
55.02°N 14.7°W
Largest cityBalsan
51.9°N 13.0°W
Official languagesLadin
Recognised regional languagesQuebecshirite
Ethnic groups
Religion
63.7% Christianity
—37.5% Catholic
—23.2% Protestant
—3.0% Other

19.6% Unaffiliated 10.3% Indigenous 3.0% Jewish

2.4% Other
Demonym(s)Tiroler
GovernmentUnitary Parliamentary Constitutional Republic
• Premier
Ulrike Kindle
• Speaker of the Senate
Erwin Moroder
LegislatureParliament
Senate
National Council
Formation
• Margraviate
1456
• Kingdom
1655
• End of the Civil War
1893
• Monarchy Abolished
1893
• Current Constitution
1982
Area
• Total
3,492,951 km2 (1,348,636 sq mi)
• Water (%)
2.3%
Population
• 2020 estimate
29,215,138
• 2015 census
26,512,315
• Density
8.364/km2 (21.7/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)estimate
• Total
TIR 3.214 trillion
• Per capita
TIR110,011
GDP (nominal)estimate
• Total
TIR2.653 trillion
• Per capita
TIR90,809
Gini (2019)Negative increase 41.2
medium
HDI (2019)Steady 0.821
very high · very high
CurrencySchilling (TIR)
Time zoneAMT-1
Driving sideleft
Calling code+101
Internet TLD.tir

Tirol, officially the Free State of Tirol (Ladin: Fraestat Tirol, occasionally Tyrol, historically "the Tyrole"), is a coastal state in the North-East of Ecros. It is a unitary state comprising of 5 provinces. It is the least populous country in continental Ecros, and among the least populous globally. An Alpine nation, Tirol is mostly mountainous with some alluvial flood plains nearer the coast. Historic tsunamis in folk-lore led to many coastal settlements being abandoned in favour of mountainous settlements, meaning Tirol has the lowest proportion of coastal to total population of any coastal nation in Terraconserva. Tirol borders with Quebecshire to the south-east. Its capital is Innsbruck and its largest city is Balsan with a population of 2,325,752 inhabitants as of 2018.

The territory of modern Tirol has been inhabited since 23,000 BCE. The first major civilisation, the Rhaetian Confederation appeared around 50 BCE and dominated much of the Dolomita. In 1456, the Tiroler Pentarchy was united under the Margraves of Innthal establishing the Margraviate of Tirol. In 1655, the Kingdom of Tirol was established in order to centralise control over the five provinces in Innsbruck. The Tiroler Civil War was fought between 1890 and 1893 between the republicans and monarchists, the three year conflict was the bloodiest in Tiroler history, with over 400,000 lives lost (around 5% of the male population). In 1893 Republican victory resulted in the abolition of the monarchy, the senate was established to overlook the, contemporaneously, noble-dominated National Council. Ultimately, the expansion of the franchise caused the National Council to be dominated by the predominantly working class Labour Party whilst the senate became dominated by the aristocratic League Party.

Major urban areas of Tirol inlude Innsbruck, Balsan, Hall, Trënt, Porsenù and Wergal. Tirol has achieved a relatively high standard of living and is ranked highly in quality-of-life indicators.

Tirol is somewhat poorer than its neighbour and primary trading partner, Quebecshire, suffering from a higher poverty rate, in addition to severe, though decreasing, corruption. However, due to the Dolomita Mountain Range which dominates the nation, it has extensive hydroelectric potential, in addition to a growing tourist sector. Tirol is a unitary republic, under a parliamentary system with fusion of the executive and legislature, and de jure an independent judiciary, though according to a study by Innthaler Politische Bureau, the judiciary is directly dependent upon the will of the premier.

Etymology

According to Egon Kühebacher, the name Tirol derives from a root word meaning terrain (i.e. area, ground or soil; compare Ayreoshubic: terra and Old Rhaetic: tir); first from the village of Tirol, and its castle; from which the County of Tirol grew. Some sources suggest it derives from the Slavic language "ta rola" meaning "this land, farming terrain/farming ground." According to Karl Finsterwalder, the name Tirol derives from Teriolis, a dark ages travellers' hostel in Zirl, Tirol. There seems to be no scholarly consensus.

History

Prehistory

The earliest archaeological records of human settlement in Tirol have been found in the Tischofer Cave. They date from the Palaeolithic, about 28,000-27,000 years ago. The same cave has also yielded evidence of human occupation during the Bronze Age (2000–1000 BCE).

In 1982, the mummified remains of a man who had died around 3300-3100 BCE were discovered in a glacier in the Ötstal Dolomita, in Tirol. Researchers have called him Ötsi (and also other names, including "The Iceman"). He lived during the Copper Age, after man had learned how to exploit copper but before man had learned how to make bronze. His body and belongings were very well-preserved, and have been subjected to detailed scientific study. They are preserved in the Inn Museum of Archaeology, Balsan, Provinzia Inn, Tirol.

There is evidence that Tirol was a centre for copper mining in the 4th millennium BCE; for example, at Porsenù. There is also evidence of the Urnfield culture (roughly 1300–750 BCE).

Evidence of the La Tène culture (roughly 450–100 BCE, during the Iron Age) has also been found; as has evidence of the Fritzens-Sanzeno culture from about the same period. Towards the end of that time, Tirol began to be noted in written records. They were commonly called the Rhaetians; although it is not clear whether that then meant a specific tribe or confederation of tribes, or was a broader term for the inhabitants of the area. They made wine barrels, and had their own alphabet.

Before 300 BCE there is no evidence for wide-scale habitation, with only the broad glacial valleys of the Innthal, Adescthal and Mayrthal showing significant signs of habitation.

Rhaetian Confederation

Between 100 BCE and 20 CE, a number of tribes near Porsenù and throughout present-day Provinzia Inn and Adesc successfully confederated, somewhat unifying the High Franconia, establishing the Rhaetian Confederation. The etymology of Rhaetia is unknown, though the most prominent theory is that the most prominent of the first leaders, referred to in some Rhaetian tablets as Rhaetus was the root of this name. Rhaetus is thought to have derived from a deity of the same name in the polytheistic religion dominant in the Dolomita between 300BCE and the Christianisation of Tirol in 600 CE.

Pentarchy

Christianisation of Tirol began around 600 CE, influenced by the Creeperian Catholic Church from the south. In 601, Albrec dis Persenù of the Kingdom of Adesca was the first baptised Tiroler ruler.

Throughout the 7th and 8th centuries, power fluctuated between the larger kingdoms. The Aquila Tirolensis records Albrec dis Persenù as being dominant at the close of the 6th century, but power seems to have shifted northwards to the kingdom of Zillerthal, which was formed from the amalgamation of several tribes. Zillerthal probably held dominance over much of Tirol. Due to succession crises, Zillerthaler hegemony was not constant, and Adescthal remained a very powerful kingdom. Two defeats ended Zillerthaler dominance: the Battle of the Trënt in 679 against Etschthal, and Nechtanesmere in 685 against the Quebecshirites.

The so-called "Adesc Supremacy" dominated the 8th century, though it was not constant. Carle and Luda, the two most powerful kings, achieved high status; indeed, Luda was considered the overlord of south Tirol by most powers in Ecros. His power is illustrated by the fact that he summoned the resources to build the Adesc Wall a series of mountain fortresses. However, a rising Innsbruck, and challenges from smaller kingdoms, kept Adesc power in check, and by the early 9th century the "Adesc Supremacy" was over.

This period has been described as the Pentarchy, though this term has now fallen out of academic use. The term arose because the five kingdoms of Tirol were the main polities of the region. Other small kingdoms were also politically important across this period: Cerneu and Ehrwalde.

Margraviate

Through the 1440s, the Margraviate of Innsbruck through a series of diplomatic marriages secured the union of three out of the five states of the pentarchy. In 1453, the Adescthal and Zillerthal were integrated directly into the margraviate. In 1456 the Margrave called for the establishment of a Royal Diet, with a representative from each of the five states. Now, a dominant power, the Margrave of Innsbruck promised extensive autonomy and rights to all the provinces if they swore fealty. Hence the five valleys were unified. Margravial Tirol reached its greatest height under Leopold, a great friend of the church and founder of abbeys. He patronised towns and developed a great level of territorial dependence.

Kingdom

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Civil War

The Tiroler Civil War was a civil war in Tirol between 1890 and 1893 fought to overthrow the Kingdom of Tirol and depose the House of Cerneu. The war was fought between the Republicans, divided between numerous groups with two central command structures under the Socialists and the Liberals, and the Monarchists who supported the status quo ante bellum under King Kristian. The Socialists were composed primarily of the working classes from the rapidly expanding urban centres of Tirol, they sought the abolition of the monarchy alongside the establishment of a socialist state. The Liberals had prior to the war throughout the 1880s supported the establishment of a constitutional monarchy, however, following the ascension of Kristian to the throne, and the illiberal and absolutist policy that accompanied his reign, the majority, who were primarily middle or upper class joined in advocating the abolition and the establishment of a free state.

In the years before the conflict, Tiroler society had experienced rapid population growth, industrialisation, and the rise of a comprehensive labour movement. The country's political and government systems were in an unstable phase of modernisation which was rapidly reversed with the ascension of the traditionalist Kristian. This combined with an economic downturn driven by high tariffs on Quebecshirite imports exacerbated discontent. Ultimately, on 16th May 1890 the Royal Diet petitioned the King with an ultimatum, demanding final legislative authority on matters of declaration of war, new taxes, tariffs and the judiciary. The King rejected the petition two days later, in a public address declaring it to be a mockery of the ideals Tirol was built upon, subsequently declaring martial law. Violence would first break out in Trënt where attempts to break up a miners' strike would result in the Tiroler Rifles, the commanding Lieutenant later claimed in response to a revolver in the crowd, firing upon the miners killing 12. The working classes of the city stormed the Rifles headquarters in Balsan hanging the local commander Colonel Henric dl Appan from the window of the headquarters and beating the sixteen Rifles garrisoning the building to death.

The Republicans were victorious, Kristian was executed and the kingdom replaced by a Free State. Leader of the Republican forces failed to agree to a single leader following the war resulting in the 1893 Red Winter in which the leaders of the Socialist leadership were persecuted and imprisoned, a period of liberal rule followed. The abolition of the monarchy was followed by a transition to a democratic free state, with the Royal diet being converted into the National Council, elected by a system of proportional representation. Alongside this the Senate was established representing the provinces established in place of the duchies of the monarchy, senators were elected via a system of plurality in triple member constituencies.

Free State

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Politics

The Parliament of Tirol is located in Innsbruck, the country's capital. Tirol became a parliamentary, democratic republic following the Civil War and the Constitutional Convention of 1893. The political system abolishing federalism and establishing five provinces was enacted in the 1982 Constitution.

The government may be removed from office by a vote of no confidence in the lower chamber of parliament, the national council.

Tirol's parliament consists of two chambers. The composition of the National Council (700 seats) is determined every seven years (or when the National Council is dissolved via a motion of no confidence and a failure of any government to command a majority of the house) by a general election in which every citizen over the age of 17 has the right to vote. The voting age was lowered from 21 in 2006.

While there is a general threshold of 4% of the vote nationally for all parties in legislative elections to participate in proportional allocation, it is possible to participate if a party commands a majority in an electoral district, or is a recognised minority party.

The National Council is the dominant chamber in the legislative process in Tirol. However, the upper house of parliament, the Senate, has a limited right of veto. A constitutional convention was convened on the 19 March 2008 to consider reforms, however, proposed reduction of power for the senate was opposed by the League Party and hence failed to produce a proposal commanding a two-thirds majority as required to amend the constitution.

Tirol is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic and a representative democracy. The Government of Tirol is led by the Premier, currently Ulrike Kindle, with the Speaker of the Senate serving as his successor and deputy. The nation's legislative branch, the bicameral legislature, is led by the Premier and is elected in two parts - The lower house is elected via a closed list system of proportional representation, while the upper house, the senate is elected via plurality in single-member constituencies, with each of the provinces electing three senators and the premier appointing a further three senators. The judiciary is composed of the High Court of Tirol and the District Courts of which there are three in each province. The High Court is composed of 3 Justices presided over by the speaker of the senate, where high court trials take place.

Each province has an appointed secretary of state which acts as the premier's delegate to each province. Though they hold no authority to legislate, they may call a state of provincial emergency, authorising the use of national crisis response, allowing the suspension of some aspects of the constitution, such as habeus corpus.

Administrative Divisions

Tirol is a unitary state with five constituent, local government has no power to legislate, but they do hold authority over local services, construction rights and mineral extraction rights. The National Council is the final authority on all matters of state, and regional governance derives power only from the National Council.

The five provinces encompass each of the five great valleys, the Provinzia Adesc encompassing the Adescthal valley, the Provinzia Inn the valley of the Inn, the Provinzia Trentin, the Mayr basin and so forth. At the convergence of the valleys, is the capital Innsbruck which sits in a special autonomous district distinct from the five provinces which is governed by a locally elected council.

Tirol location map.svg
Province Capital Area
(sq km)
Population
(2020 estimate)
Density
per km2
GDP (TIR)
(2017 Stat)
GDP per
capita
Provinzia Adesc Porsenù 265,889 5,352,135 20.1 412 bn 76,978
Provinzia Inn Balsan 543,480 8,513,749 15.7 1,074 bn 126,148
Innsbruck 4,337 2,613,004 602.4 352 bn 134,710
Provinzia Trentin Trënt 801,154 5,562,822 6.9 414 bn 74,422
Provinzia Passeier Maran 346,083 3,915,742 11.3 241 bn 61,546
Provinzia Ziller Ampëz 737,812 3,257,686 4.4 160 bn 49,114








Political Parties

The usage of a closed-list system of proportional representation means there are a great deal of political parties represented in the National Council, where a total of eight parties have deputies. The senate, however, is split primarily between two coalitions, the Traditionalists and the Socialists due to the system of First Past the Post in usage for the election of senators.

The largest political party in the National Council has been the Labour Party for over a decade following a success in the 2005 legislative Election whilst the Senate Socialists have held a majority of 3 seats since the 2016 Senate Election. The primary opposition in the National Council is the League Party, who form the majority of the Senate Traditionalist caucus. The Internationale Party is partnered with Labour in the Senate, forming the Socialist Coalition. The League Party is partnered with the Freedom and Justice Party.

Foreign Relations

Tirol has held a position of neutrality since the founding of the TCN, refusing to join any of the caucuses. It does however, align economically with the Terraconserva Economic Union, primarily by necessity due to the Quebecshirite influence over the Tiroler economy.

The Tiroler Defence Forces have had limited participation in international interventions and peacekeeping missions, most notably in the Ajaki–Reykani War from 1958 until 1960.

Due to the size of the Quebecshirite economy a substantial portion of Tiroler trade is with Quebecshire.

Military

Tirol possesses a large, but outdated, armed forces. The Tiroler Defence Forces are composed of three primary branches and two auxiliary branches - the Ground Forces, Navy and the Air Corps. The auxiliary branches are the Militia and the Rifles, a military force with law enforcement duties among the civilian population. 9.2% of Tirol's GDP is dedicated to the Armed Forces due to the high levels of internal unrest. The Head of the Armed Forces is officially the Premier of Tirol, however, the majority of actions relating to the armed forces are undertaken by the Defence Minister Franzis Raffl and the Chief of Staff.

The largest branches of the Tiroler Defence Forces are the Militia and Ground Forces, which are drafted to requirement presently with a total of 112,000 personnel. The second-largest is the Rifles who have a total of 62,010 personnel. The navy and air force account for 12,020 and 14,400 respectively.

Geography and Biodiversity

Tirol is a largely mountainous country because of its location in the Dolomita. The Central Dolomita, Northern Dolomita and Southern Dolimita are all partly in Tirol. Of the total area of Tirol (1,052,631 sq mi), only about a quarter can be considered low lying, and only 32% of the country is below 500 metres (1,640 ft). The Dolomita of Central Tirol give way somewhat into low lands and plains in parts of the south.

Topographical Map of Tirol

Climate

By the Köppen-Geiger climate classification Tirol has the following climate types Dsc, Dfb, Dfc and ET. This includes Artic Tundra in the northern reaches of the country, Alpine Tundra in the higher ranges of the Dolomita, subarctic coastal climate nearer the coastline with smaller areas of continental climate around the Inn bay and in parts of the far south. Coniferous forest dominates around 70% of the country with 60% entirely uncultivated. Around 10% of the landmass is covered by deciduous forest, though it is under threat following the discovery of oil reserves.


File:Tirol climate map.png
Map of climates in Tirol.
  Cfa
  Dfa
  Dfb
  Dfc
  Dsc
  ET

In the south of the nation, many different species of animals thrive in the forests and mountains, including deer, bears, foxes, raccoons, squirrels, and marmots. Bats can also be found in most sub-tundra parts of the nation.

The central parts of Tirol, largely dominated by short summers and long, cold winters, are home to several species of foxes, caribou, moose, elk, deer, lynx, beavers, and bears. In the extreme north of the nation, arctic foxes, muskoxen, and polar bears can be found. Salmon and trout can prominently be found in the freshwater bodies of southern Tirol.

Off the western coast of Tirol, some species of orcas, seals, dolphins, and whales, and small populations of sharks, along with numerous species of fish. The silver-finned salmon is endemic to Tirol's northern waters thriving on the unique geothermal waters in the Glaceis Ocean.

Demographics

As of the 2010 census, the population of Tirol stands at 26,512,315 people. An estimate from 2020 puts this figure slightly higher, at 29,215,138. This makes Tirol the 2nd least populous nation in the world, with 12 million less than Rakeo, in addition to the least populous in Ecros. The median age of the population of Tirol is 33.1 years, and the current fertility rate is about 2.6 births per woman. Life expectancy in Tirol is about 86 years from birth.

A substantial majority of the population identify as Tirolër. 4.1% of the population identify as Quebecshirite, 83% of whom are concentrated in the Provinzia Adesc and Provinzia Trentin provinces, in which the Quebecshirite Language is a de facto secondary language, though it receives no national recognition it is used extensively by local government. 12.7% of the population identify as neither Tirolër nor Quebecshirite, mostly concentrated in cosmopolitan Balsan due to a large migrant population. According to a 2014 census, 62.3% of the population speaks Ladin as first language, 23.4% of the population speaks Tiroleus, a disputed dialect of Ladin, and 4.1% speak Quebecshirite, concentrated mostly in the Provinzia Adesc and Provinzia Trentin districts bordering Quebecshire and Gagium respectively.

Largest cities

Language

Standard Ladin is spoken in Tirol, though there are substantial regional variations.

Provinzia Adesc is home to a significant Quebecshirite minority who speak a dialect of the Quebecshirite language. There are relatively large numbers of people who are of non-Tiroler decent from surrounding countries, including refugees from the Lyoan Civil War. Since 2006 Kindu became an officially recognised ethnic minority in Tirol.

In 1994, the Tiroler government introduced standardised tests for new citizens to assure their language ability, cultural knowledge and accordingly their ability to integrate into Tiroler society.

Ethnic groups

Bilingual sign in Provinzia Adesc

Tirolër people may be described either as a nationality or a homogenous ethnic group that is closely related to other Rhaetic ethnicities. Today 83.2% of the population are regarded as purely ethnically Tirolër.

Quebecshirites are the largest single immigrant group in Tirol, closely followed by Lyoans. Historically, Quebecshirite immigrants moved into eastern Adesc during the Westward expansion. The large Lyoan population consists primarily of naturalised refugees from the Lyoan Civil War.

Religion

Religion in Tirol (2019)
Creeperian Catholicism
37.5%
Protestantism
23.2%
Rhaetic Paganism
10.3%
Other religions
5.4%
Other Christian
3.0%
None
19.6%

In 2010, about 52% of Tirol's population were registered as Creeperian Catholic, whilst about 25% considered themselves Protestants. Tiroler Christians, Catholic and Protestant, are obliged to pay a mandatory membership fee to their church. Around 12% of total Tiroler population in 2019 attended church every Sunday.

The 2010 census report indicated around 20% of the population declared that they have no religion.

Economy

Tirol Exports in 2019

  Precious Metals (33%)
  Machinery (15%)
  Crude Oil (8%)
  Salmon (8%)
  Plastic and rubber products (6%)
  Basic Metals (5%)
  Agricultural products (4.8%)
  Paper goods (3.2%)
  Mineral Products (3.5%)
  Food goods (3.1%)
  Animal products (3%)
  Wood products (2%)
  Others (5.4%)

Tirol possesses a largely rural economy with agriculture still being the largest sector of employment. Crude oil extraction and precious metals make up the largest proportion of the GDP, with gold in particular accounting for the plurality of the sector. Forestry is a large industry with a great deal of the country shrouded in forests, however, many of these areas have been licensed to high ranking government officials restricting the industry greatly.

The two hydroelectric projects on the Mayr and Adesc rivers and the relatively low electrical consumption in the country means a good deal of electricity produced in the country is exported.

Quebecshire has historically been the primary trading partner of Tirol, making it vulnerable to rapid changes in the Quebecshirite economy. In recent years trade has increased with the other Rhaetic nations in Northern Ecros.

Tourism accounts for almost a twelth of the Tiroler gross domestic product, and is one of the largest employers of any economic sector besides agriculture.

Infrastructure

Transportation

Tirol has relatively good transport infrastructure despite its heavily mountainous terrain. Tiroler engineers are the premier in the world at tunnelling through easily fractured limestone rock and all major routes traverse both mountain passes and mountain tunnels.

Road transport

A1 between Hall and Lianz.

Road infrastructure in Tirol is relatively good, with five Autostrèdes reaching to every major settlement, though in the more remote areas roads are mostly unmetalled and are unnavigable by most vehicles. Currently the Autostrèda A6 is under construction which will connect Ampëz, the only provincial capital that is unconnected to the Autostrèda system. The Strèda Naziunela connect most major settlements to the Autostrèda system, which typically passes through many different valleys. The most important motorway in the Autostrèda system is the Autostrèda A1 which links Innsbruck, the capital city, to Balsan, the most populous city and economic centre, the initial construction of which cut the journey time from three days to several hours, cutting through the Prëner Pass rather than following the Inn valley.

Railways

The railway network with lines such as the Hochbahn reaching high into the Dolomita, is far more extensive. The railways are administrated by the Rifles and as such military travel is prioritised. The five main valleys of Tirol have high-speed rail links, in addition to the Gherdëina valley, other areas are served by slower, but picturesque Alpenferata and their spiralling 19th century bridges and tunnels.

Hochbahn in the western Dolomita.

Airports

Tirol has over 100 airports and 40 heliports. Most airports in the country have short, unpaved runways. Only two airports have paved runways over 3,000 metres, Innsbruck Hall Airport and Balsan City Airport. Air travel is scarcely used, with the only international airport in the country situated in the capital, as such it is primarily used for international travel. Domestic use of rotary craft for air travel is mostly affordable only to the wealthiest and as such is rarely in use.

The two largest airlines based in Tirol are Edelweiss Aier and Tiroler Airlines. Other notable airlines include Aier Dolomiti and Ladinia Airways.

Culture

Tiroler culture is heavily focused on its Dolomite location, for example yodelling is commonly used as a means of communication. There is a tradition among the Catholic community to light fires in the shape of the cross on the mountainside before Easter. Those following indigenous religions are mostly concentrated in the far north, much of their culture focuses on the reindeer that render their lifestyle possible. Tiroler culture also has significant influences from the Rhaetic Kingdom of the land, as well as from the small amounts of immigrants from other nations, primarily during the 19th and 20th centuries.

Many Tirolean customs were created centuries ago and are passed on by the population for the next generations. Typical in the Alpine region are the many individual customs in the valleys. Due to the seclusion of the valleys, the locals developed their own customs. Many customs have been created by legends and narratives, others by the close connection to the church. There are also traditions that are cultivated everywhere in the Tirolean region and do not differ from other valleys and villages. These customs give local people an identity and thus feel the community more connected.

Modern Tiroler cultural practices are heavily regulated with outside media programmes requiring individual approval before being broadcast by the Broadcasting Agency of Tirol.

Cuisine

Tiroler Speck

The Tirolean cuisine is characterized by its alpine influence. Also, the historical influence of the former heptarchy can be found in the Tirolean dishes. These include dishes such as goulash, Kaiserschmarrn and apple strudel which are consumed in large parts of the country. Since the region is still relatively strong agricultural and peasant today, also many pheasant dishes are offered on the farms. Schlutzkrapfen, boiled dumplings or cold cuts with bacon (in German: Speck) or grey cheese is eaten on the farms.

The Tirolean dishes show only slight differences throughout Tirol. In the far southern part of Tirol, a lot of wine is grown and is therefore also an important part of the Tirolean dish, especially in Provinzia Trentin. Famous wines from this area are the Gewürztraminer, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Grigio and Chardonnay. Furthermore, a lot of apples are grown in the Provinzia Trentin near the Gagian border. In this region also a food culture is cultivated with a mixture of Quebecshirite and Tirolean specialties.

Rifles

Rifles with their commanding officer during the Civil War

The Tirolean Rifles were a militia organised in case of an attack on crown land, which required Tirol to defend its territory. The militia consisted mostly of citizens and peasants who were responsible only for the defence of their own land and were not obliged to go to war on behalf of the monarchy. They were authorised by an order signed by Margrave Maximilian I in 1511 that remained valid until 1918. The Rifles were also used during the Civil War in the Provinzia Adesc. After the abolition of the monarchy, the companies also lost their task of defending their country. Nevertheless, they remained as a non-governmental organization. Today, the Rifles are responsible as an organization for the preservation of the Tirolean culture and are always present at important political events in Tirol.

Customs

Many Tiroler customs were created centuries ago and passed on by the population for generations. Typically in the region there are many individual customs in each valley. Due to the seclusion of the valleys, the locals developed their own customs. Many customs have been created by legends and narratives, others by close connection to the church. There are also traditions that are cultivated everywhere in the Tiroler region and do not differ from other valleys and villages. These customs give local people an identity and thus feel the community more connected.

Sports

Skijump Arena near Ciavaleis

Due to the mountainous terrain, alpine skiing is a prominent sport in Tirol and is valuable in the promotion and economic growth of the country. Similar sports such as snowboarding or ski-jumping are also broadly popular. Bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton are also popular events with a permanent track located in Schwaz, which hosted bobsleigh and luge competitions.

A popular team sport in Tirol is football, which is governed by the Tiroler Football Association. The national Tiroler football league is the Tiroler Lia Naziunela, which includes teams such as record-champions CP Innsbruck, CP Appan, Hall and Ziller Prima. Tirol is represented on the national level by the Tirol national team.

Besides football, Tirol also has professional national leagues for most major team sports, including the Tiroler Hockey League for ice hockey, and the Tiroler Basketball Liga for basketball. Horseback riding is also popular; the famed Riding School of Absam is located in Absam.

See Also