Free State of Tirol
Fraestat dl Tirol
Motto: "Per nobiltà i lege"
Jackian: "By Nobility and Law"
Location of Tirol in North-East Ecros
|Recognised regional languages||Quebecshirite|
19.6% Unaffiliated 5.3% Indigenous 3.0% Jewish2.4% Other
|Government||Unitary Parliamentary Constitutional Republic|
• Speaker of the Senate
• End of the Civil War
• Monarchy Abolished
• Current Constitution
|605,731.6 km2 (233,874.3 sq mi)|
• Water (%)
• 2020 estimate
• 2015 census
|48.2/km2 (124.8/sq mi)|
|S 3.78 trillion|
• Per capita
|Gini (2019)|| 41.2|
|HDI (2019)|| 0.941|
very high · very high
|Time zone||AMT-1 (MT)|
|Mains electricity||230V-50 Hz|
Tirol, officially the Free State of Tirol (Ladin: Fraestat dl Tirol, occasionally Tyrol, historically "the Tyrole"), is a landlocked state in north-eastern Ecros. The country is a unitary state comprising of five provinces, with government buildings based in Innsbruck. It is the least populous country in continental Ecros, and among the least populous globally. An Alpine nation, Tirol is mostly mountainous with some alluvial flood plains nearer the coast. Tirol borders with Quebecshire to the south-east. Its capital is Innsbruck and its largest city is Balsan with a population of 2,325,752 inhabitants as of 2018. The main international airports of Tirol are based in the two cities. Of the nearly 30 million citizens of Tirol, the majority inhabit the Inn and Mayr valleys, as these valleys have the greatest area of flat arable lands.
The territory of modern Tirol has been inhabited since 23,000 BCE. The first major civilisation, the Rhaetian Confederation appeared around 50 BCE and dominated much of the Dolomita. In 1456, the Tiroler Pentarchy was united under the Margraves of Innthal establishing the Margraviate of Tirol. In 1655, the Kingdom of Tirol was established in order to centralise control over the five provinces in Innsbruck. Over the next two centuries, the Kingdom of Tirol expanded through a number of strategic marriages and unions, in addition to some limited colonial expansion in Reykanes and Yourtanad. The Tiroler Civil War was fought between 1890 and 1893 between the republicans and monarchists, the three year conflict was the bloodiest in Tiroler history, with over 400,000 lives lost (around 5% of the male population). In 1893 Republican victory resulted in the abolition of the monarchy, the senate was established to overlook the, contemporaneously, noble-dominated National Council. Ultimately, the expansion of the franchise caused the National Council to be dominated by the predominantly working class Labour Party whilst the senate became dominated by the aristocratic League Party.
The capital is Innsbruck, although the largest city is Balsan, which has a population of over 2 million. Other major urban areas of Tirol inlude Hall, Trënt, Porsenù and Wergal. Each of the provinces have their own provincial councils that function as devolved legislatures, although due to the unitary nature of the state these councils derive all their authority from the national parliament. Tirol has achieved a relatively high standard of living and is ranked highly in quality-of-life indicators.
Tirol shares an extensive border with Quebecshire, which is the nation's primary trading partner. Although Tirol has a substantially lower population and GDP, it suffers from a lower rate of poverty than Quebecshire. Due to the Dolomita Mountain Range which dominates the nation, it has extensive hydroelectric potential, in addition to a growing tourist sector. Tirol is a unitary republic, under a parliamentary system with fusion of the executive and legislature, and an independent judiciary, though according to a study by Innthaler Politische Bureau, the judiciary is several percentage points more likely to support the League than the general population.
Tirol is a member of the Terraconserva Council of Nations and is signatory to a number of international treaties. It is not, however, a member of any of the major economic blocs of Terraconserva, operating primarily through bilateral agreements.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Politics
- 4 Geography
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Economy
- 7 Infrastructure
- 8 Culture
- 9 See also
According to Egon Kühebac, the name Tirol derives from a root word meaning terrain (i.e. area, ground or soil; compare Ayreoshubic: terra and Old Rhaetic: tyr); first from the village of Tirol, and its castle; from which the County of Tirol grew. According to Kar Pescosta, the name Tirol derives from Teriolis, a dark ages travellers' hostel in Zirl, Tirol. There seems to be no scholarly consensus.
The earliest archaeological records of human settlement in Tirol have been found in the Tischofer Cave. They date from the Palaeolithic, about 28,000-27,000 years ago. The same cave has also yielded evidence of human occupation during the Bronze Age (2000–1000 BCE).
In 1982, the mummified remains of a man who had died around 3300-3100 BCE were discovered in a glacier in the Ötstal Dolomita, in Tirol. Researchers have called him Ötsi (and also other names, including "The Iceman"). He lived during the Copper Age, after man had learned how to exploit copper but before man had learned how to make bronze. His body and belongings were very well-preserved, and have been subjected to detailed scientific study. They are preserved in the Inn Museum of Archaeology, Balsan, Provinzia Inn, Tirol.
There is evidence that Tirol was a centre for copper mining in the 4th millennium BCE; for example, at Porsenù. There is also evidence of the Urnfield culture (roughly 1300–750 BCE).
Evidence of the La Tène culture (roughly 450–100 BCE, during the Iron Age) has also been found; as has evidence of the Fritzens-Sanzeno culture from about the same period. Towards the end of that time, Tirol began to be noted in written records. They were commonly called the Rhaetians; although it is not clear whether that then meant a specific tribe or confederation of tribes, or was a broader term for the inhabitants of the area. They made wine barrels, and had their own alphabet.
Between 100 BCE and 20 CE, a number of tribes near Porsenù and throughout present-day Provinzia Inn and Adesc successfully confederated, somewhat unifying the High Franconia, it is the earliest period with definitive evidence of tribal confederation, although many theories place its foundation decades if not centuries earlier. The etymology of Rhaetia is unknown, though the most prominent theory is that the most prominent of the first leaders, referred to in some Rhaetian tablets as Rhaetus was the root of this name. Rhaetus is thought to have derived from a deity of the same name in the polytheistic religion dominant in the Dolomita between 300BCE and the Christianisation of Tirol in 600 CE.
Throughout the 7th and 8th centuries, power fluctuated between the larger kingdoms. The Aquila Tirolensis records Albrec dis Persenù as being dominant at the close of the 6th century, but power seems to have shifted northwards to the kingdom of Zillerthal, which was formed from the amalgamation of several tribes. Zillerthal probably held dominance over much of Tirol. Due to succession crises, Zillerthaler hegemony was not constant, and Adescthal remained a very powerful kingdom. Two defeats ended Zillerthaler dominance: the Battle of the Trënt in 679 against Etschthal, and Nechtanesmere in 685 against the Quebecshirites.
The so-called "Adesc Supremacy" dominated the 8th century, though it was not constant. Carle and Luda, the two most powerful kings, achieved high status; indeed, Luda was considered the overlord of south Tirol by most powers in Ecros. His power is illustrated by the fact that he summoned the resources to build the Adesc Wall a series of mountain fortresses. However, a rising Innsbruck, and challenges from smaller kingdoms, kept Adesc power in check, and by the early 9th century the "Adesc Supremacy" was over.
This period has been described as the Pentarchy, though this term has now fallen out of academic use. The term arose because the five kingdoms of Tirol were the main polities of the region. Other small kingdoms were also politically important across this period: Cerneu and Ehrwalde.
Through the 1440s, the Margraviate of Innsbruck through a series of diplomatic marriages secured the union of three out of the five states of the pentarchy. In 1453, the Adescthal and Zillerthal were integrated directly into the margraviate. In 1456 the Margrave called for the establishment of a Royal Diet, with a representative from each of the five states. Now, a dominant power, the Margrave of Innsbruck promised extensive autonomy and rights to all the provinces if they swore fealty. Hence the five valleys were unified. Margravial Tirol reached its greatest height under Leopold, a great friend of the church and founder of abbeys. He patronised towns and developed a great level of territorial dependence.
In the early 17th century, Tiroler explorer and privateer Franzis-Joseph dl Zell secured the support of the crown in seeking to establish colonial settlements on Nurderlia. His first expedition to the island set sail on the 1 March 1631, however, harsh winds and a particularly cold winter forced the expedition to turn back before traversing the Northern Passage. Franzis-Joseph led a second expedition on the 23 July of the same year, which was far more successful, reaching land in Nurderlia on the 16 August. On this expedition, he identified six potential sites for settlement, with three on the Braies Peninsula (now Laugar). His return to Tirol was fraught with danger, autumn storms made for a violent sea and an outbreak of disease left many of his crew incapacitated. Franzis-Joseph returned to the port at Sest and abandoned his severely damaged ship.
Over the next few years a number of settlements were established on the Braies Peninsula: Ludahafen (1640), Pòrt Kristian (1645) and Pòrt Real (1651). On 1 March 1654, Kristian I on the advice of Francis-Joseph, made the Vernier Declaration, which laid claim to the entire Braies Peninsula, utilising contemporaneous Tiroler naval strength to control the isthmus dividing it from the mainland. This declaration marked the establishment of the first Tiroler colonial entity, the Royal Colony of the Braies Peninsula (Ladin: Colonia Real dla Mezisola Braies). The colony grew substantially over the next decades, drawing on the income from trade vessels coming to and from Tirol to eastern Ecros and Ostlandet.
In 1660, the Tiroler Oriental Company was established, with a royal order providing it a monopoly on trade with Ostlandet, particularly Yourtanad, Paleocacher and Reia. From its headquarters in [ISLAND] the Oriental Company established a presence in many areas of Ostlandet, most notably establishing a permanent presence in Yourtanad, in and around the modern city of Mei. The company headquarters in Yourtanad was Noiahafen established in 1701, south-east of Mei. Throughout the next three decades, the company expanded its local influence, functioning in effect as a government of its own. Though nominally under the control of the Tiroler crown, the Oriental Company managed its own army, government, and taxation. The company recruited a great number of native Yourtanadians known as Hoias, rooted from the Yourtanadian word for infantry, were recruited as company soldiers.
PORTA BAY WAR, leadup, war, results
The Tiroler Civil War was a civil war in Tirol between 1890 and 1893 fought to overthrow the Kingdom of Tirol and depose the House of Cerneu. The war was fought between the Republicans, divided between numerous groups with two central command structures under the Socialists and the Liberals, and the Monarchists who supported the status quo ante bellum under Kristian II. The Socialists were composed primarily of the working classes from the rapidly expanding urban centres of Tirol, they sought the abolition of the monarchy alongside the establishment of a socialist state. The Liberals had prior to the war throughout the 1880s supported the establishment of a constitutional monarchy, however, following the ascension of Kristian to the throne, and the illiberal and absolutist policy that accompanied his reign, the majority, who were primarily middle or upper class joined in advocating the abolition and the establishment of a free state.
In the years before the conflict, Tiroler society had experienced rapid population growth, industrialisation, and the rise of a comprehensive labour movement. The country's political and government systems were in an unstable phase of modernisation which was rapidly reversed with the ascension of the traditionalist Kristian. This combined with an economic downturn driven by high tariffs on Quebecshirite imports exacerbated discontent. Ultimately, on 16th May 1890 the Royal Diet petitioned the King with an ultimatum, demanding final legislative authority on matters of declaration of war, new taxes, tariffs and the judiciary. The King rejected the petition two days later, in a public address declaring it to be a mockery of the ideals Tirol was built upon, subsequently declaring martial law. Violence would first break out in Trënt where attempts to break up a miners' strike would result in the Tiroler Rifles, the commanding Lieutenant later claimed in response to a revolver in the crowd, firing upon the miners killing 12. The working classes of the city stormed the Rifles headquarters in Balsan hanging the local commander Colonel Henric dl Appan from the window of the headquarters and beating the sixteen Rifles garrisoning the building to death.
The Republicans were victorious, Kristian was executed and the kingdom replaced by a Free State. Leader of the Republican forces failed to agree to a single leader following the war resulting in the 1893 Red Winter in which the leaders of the Socialist leadership were persecuted and imprisoned, a period of liberal rule followed. The abolition of the monarchy was followed by a transition to a democratic free state, with the Royal diet being converted into the National Council, elected by a system of proportional representation. Alongside this the Senate was established representing the provinces established in place of the duchies of the monarchy, senators were elected via a system of plurality in triple member constituencies.
Speaker of the Senate
The Parliament of Tirol is located in Innsbruck, the country's capital. Tirol became a parliamentary, democratic republic following the Civil War and the Constitutional Convention of 1893. The political system abolishing federalism and establishing five provinces was enacted in the 1982 Constitution.
The government may be removed from office by a vote of no confidence in the lower chamber of parliament, the national council.
Tirol's parliament consists of two chambers. The composition of the National Council (700 seats) is determined every seven years (or when the National Council is dissolved via a motion of no confidence and a failure of any government to command a majority of the house) by a general election in which every citizen over the age of 17 has the right to vote. The voting age was lowered from 21 in 2006.
While there is a general threshold of 4% of the vote nationally for all parties in legislative elections to participate in proportional allocation, it is possible to participate if a party commands a majority in an electoral district, or is a recognised minority party.
The National Council is the dominant chamber in the legislative process in Tirol. However, the upper house of parliament, the Senate, has a limited right of veto. A constitutional convention was convened on the 19 March 2008 to consider reforms, however, proposed reduction of power for the senate was opposed by the League Party and hence failed to produce a proposal commanding a two-thirds majority as required to amend the constitution.
Tirol is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic and a representative democracy. The Government of Tirol is led by the Premier, currently Ulrike Kindle, with the Speaker of the Senate serving as his successor and deputy. The nation's legislative branch, the bicameral legislature, is led by the Premier and is elected in two parts - The lower house is elected via a closed list system of proportional representation, while the upper house, the senate is elected via plurality in single-member constituencies, with each of the provinces electing three senators and the premier appointing a further three senators. The judiciary is composed of the High Court of Tirol and the District Courts of which there are three in each province. The High Court is composed of 3 Justices presided over by the speaker of the senate, where high court trials take place.
Each province has an appointed secretary of state which acts as the premier's delegate to each province. Though they hold no authority to legislate, they may call a state of provincial emergency, authorising the use of national crisis response, allowing the suspension of some aspects of the constitution, such as habeus corpus.
Tirol is a unitary state with five constituent provinces, local government hold authority over local services, construction rights and mineral extraction rights. The National Council is the final authority on all matters of state, and regional governance derives power only from the National Council.
The five provinces encompass each of the five great valleys, the Provinzia Adesc encompassing the Adescthal valley, the Provinzia Inn the valley of the Inn, the Provinzia Trentin, the Mayr basin and so forth. Also on the Inn valley, is the capital Innsbruck which sits in a special autonomous district distinct from the five provinces which is governed by a locally elected council.
The provinces are sub-divided into district commissions (Distret Comiscïon) and statutory cities (Ziteies Statutar). As of 2020, there are 34 districts, of which 28 are headed by district commissions; 5 are headed by statutory cities; and one, Innsbruck is a special autonomous district headed by the Innsbruck Metropolitan Council.
|Provinzia Adesc||Porsenù||114,116||5,352,135||46.9||587 bn||109,586|
|Provinzia Inn||Balsan||173,058||8,513,749||49.1||1,529 bn||179,584|
|Provinzia Trentin||Trënt||195,920||5,562,822||28.4||589 bn||105,947|
|Provinzia Passeier||Maran||48,009||3,915,742||81.5||343 bn||87,617|
|Provinzia Ziller||Ampëz||73,262||3,257,686||44.4||228 bn||69,919|
Tirol has a civil law system based on Romanyan law, with a number of influences from Old Rhaetic law. The Scefcourt Costituzionala is the Tiroler supreme court, which is responsible for constitutional matters and judicial review. In civil law, the highest court of appeal is the Supreme Administrative Court, responsible for civil cases. In criminal law, the Supreme Court of Justice is the highest court.
The stated aims of the Tiroler penal system are the rehabilitation of criminals and the protection of the public. Notably, it is not the stated aim to punish criminals. Tirol has an extensive system of rehabilitation ranging from counselling and labour training in prisons to transitionary industry and support in finding employment for prisoners near release, or recently released.
The Tiroler crime rate reached a record low in 2012, though has remained broadly steady since.
Tirol maintains a network of diplomatic missions abroad, with every country in Terraconserva. Tirol is a member of the Terraconserva Council of Nations, and maintains formal relations with the TEU, CODECO and the Ostlandet Union, but is a member of no multilateral economic bloc.
Due to the extensive trading relationship with Quebecshire, Tirol maintains very few economic barriers between with the Terraconserva Economic Union, of which Quebecshire is a member. The governments of Tirol and Quebecshire are often considered close political allies. Cultural ties and economic interests have crafted a particularly strong bond with the mountainous regions in the north-west of Quebecshire.
The development policy of Tirol is an independent area of foreign policy, and not under the authority of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The Ministry of Development and Foreign Aid, often termed the DFA office, manages all the foreign aid and development funds of Tirol. The Tiroler government formally recognises development policy as a join responsibility of the international community. It is one of the highest aid donors per capita in Terraconserva.
Tirol has held a position of neutrality since the founding of the TCN, refusing to join any of the caucuses. It does however, align economically with the Terraconserva Economic Union, primarily by necessity due to the Quebecshirite influence over the Tiroler economy.
Due to the size of the Quebecshirite economy a substantial portion of Tiroler trade is with Quebecshire.
The usage of a closed-list system of proportional representation means there are a great deal of political parties represented in the National Council, where a total of eight parties have deputies. The senate, however, is split primarily between two coalitions, the Traditionalists and the Socialists due to the system of First Past the Post in usage for the election of senators.
The largest political party in the National Council has been the Labour Party for over a decade following a success in the 2005 legislative Election whilst the Senate Socialists have held a majority of 3 seats since the 2016 Senate Election. The primary opposition in the National Council is the League Party, who form the majority of the Senate Traditionalist caucus. The Internationale Party is partnered with Labour in the Senate, forming the Socialist Coalition. The League Party is partnered with the Freedom and Justice Party.
Tirol possesses a modern and condensed armed forces. The Tiroler Defence Forces are composed of two primary branches and one auxiliary branch - the Ground Forces and the Air Corps. The auxiliary branch, the Rifles, are a military force with law enforcement duties among the civilian population. The Head of the Armed Forces is officially the Premier of Tirol, however, the majority of actions relating to the armed forces are undertaken by the Defence Minister Albert Junke and the Chief of Staff.
The largest branch of the Tiroler Defence Forces is the Ground Forces, presently with a total of 112,000 personnel. The second-largest is the Rifles who have a total of 62,010 personnel. The aviation corps accounts for 14,400.
Tirol is the smallest country in Ecros; bordering Quebecshire to the south-east. It is a landlocked nation and therefore lacks any maritime borders.
Tirol is a largely mountainous country because of its location in the Dolomita. The Central Dolomita, Northern Dolomita and Southern Dolimita are all partly in Tirol. Of the total area of Tirol (x sq mi), only about a quarter can be considered low lying, and only 32% of the country is below 500 metres (1,640 ft). The Dolomita of Central Tirol give way somewhat into low lands in the vast glacial Inn valley.
By the Köppen-Geiger climate classification Tirol has the following climate types Dsc, Dfb, Dfc and ET. This includes Artic Tundra in the northern reaches of the country, Alpine Tundra in the higher ranges of the Dolomita, subarctic coastal climate nearer the coastline with smaller areas of continental climate around the Inn bay and in parts of the far south. Coniferous forest dominates around 70% of the country with 60% entirely uncultivated. Around 10% of the landmass is covered by deciduous forest, though it is under threat following the discovery of oil reserves.
|Climate data for Kühtai, Tirol(2060 m; average temperatures 1982 – 2012) ET, somewhat close to Dfc.|
|Average high °C (°F)||−3.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−6.6
|Average low °C (°F)||−9.9
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||73
In the south of the nation, many different species of animals thrive in the forests and mountains, including deer, bears, foxes, raccoons, squirrels, and marmots. Bats can also be found in most sub-tundra parts of the nation.
The central parts of Tirol, largely dominated by short summers and long, cold winters, are home to several species of foxes, caribou, moose, elk, deer, lynx, beavers, and bears. In the extreme north of the nation, arctic foxes, muskoxen, and polar bears can be found. Salmon and trout can prominently be found in the freshwater bodies of southern Tirol.
As of the 2015 census, the population of Tirol stands at 28,512,315 people. An estimate from 2020 puts this figure slightly higher, at 29,215,138. This makes Tirol the 2nd least populous nation in the world, with 12 million less than Rakeo, in addition to the least populous in Ecros. The median age of the population of Tirol is 33.1 years, and the current fertility rate is about 2.6 births per woman. Life expectancy in Tirol is about 86 years from birth.
A substantial majority of the population identify as Tirolër. 4.1% of the population identify as Quebecshirite, 83% of whom are concentrated in the Provinzia Adesc and Provinzia Trentin provinces, in which the Quebecshirite Language is a de facto secondary language, though it receives no national recognition it is used extensively by local government. 12.7% of the population identify as neither Tirolër nor Quebecshirite, mostly concentrated in cosmopolitan Balsan due to a large migrant population. According to a 2015 census, 62.3% of the population speaks Ladin as first language, 23.4% of the population speaks Tiroleus, a disputed dialect of Ladin, and 4.1% speak Quebecshirite, concentrated mostly in the Provinzia Adesc districts bordering Quebecshire.
Largest cities or towns in Tirol
|1||Balsan||Provinzia Inn||2,325,752||11||Merin||Provinzia Trentin||371,000|
|3||Trënt||Provinzia Trentin||1,507,090||13||Fië||Provinzia Inn||272,000|
|4||Porsenù||Provinzia Adesc||733,000||14||Mayr Riviera||Provinzia Trentin||270,000|
|5||Hall||Provinzia Inn||695,000||15||Ciavedać||Provinzia Inn||268,000|
|6||Wergal||Provinzia Passeier||582,000||16||Staulìn||Provinzia Inn||262,000|
|7||Ampëz||Provinzia Ziller||413,624||17||Tlüses||Provinzia Inn||257,000|
|8||Appan||Provinzia Inn||392,000||18||Nöia Ladina||Provinzia Inn||256,000|
|9||Lianz||Provinzia Inn||383,000||19||Absam||Provinzia Trentin||353,000|
|10||La Val||Provinzia Adesc||382,000||20||Schwaz||Provinzia Adesc||349,000|
|Source: Statistica Tirol|
Tirol had an estimated population of 29,215,138 as of 2020, compared to 28,512,315 at the last census in 2015. Tirol's population is stagnating and growth rates have been dwindling since 1975. The death rate is greater than the birth rate and the growth rate in Tirol is kept positive only through immigration.
Tirol has a fairly rural population, partially due to deurbanisation policies by successive Tiroler governments aiming to decongest the principal cities. Despite these attempts the urban population of Tirol is growing at a somewhat faster rate than rural areas, with a 3% growth rate between 2015 and 2020, compared to only 1% in rural areas.
Standard Ladin is spoken in Tirol, though there are substantial regional variations.
Provinzia Adesc is home to a significant Quebecshirite minority who speak a dialect of the Quebecshirite language. There are relatively large numbers of people who are of non-Tiroler decent from surrounding countries, including refugees from the Lyoan Civil War. Since 2006 Kindu became an officially recognised ethnic minority in Tirol.
In 1994, the Tiroler government introduced standardised tests for new citizens to assure their language ability, cultural knowledge and accordingly their ability to integrate into Tiroler society.
Tirolër people may be described either as a nationality or a homogenous ethnic group that is closely related to other Rhaetic ethnicities. Today 83.2% of the population are regarded as purely ethnically Tirolër.
Quebecshirites are the largest single immigrant group in Tirol, closely followed by Lyoans. Historically, Quebecshirite immigrants moved into eastern Adesc during the Westward expansion. The large Lyoan population consists primarily of naturalised refugees from the Lyoan Civil War.
In 2010, about 54% of Tirol's population were registered as Creeperian Catholic, whilst about 12% considered themselves Protestants. Tiroler Christians, Catholic and Protestant, are obliged to pay a mandatory membership fee to their church. Around 14% of total Tiroler population in 2019 attended church every Sunday.
The 2015 census report indicated around 20% of the population declared that they have no religion, though this may be influenced somewhat by the mandatory membership fees, which inflate the rate of non-practicing Christians self-identifying as irreligious or unaffiliated.
|Academic degrees||Vocational degrees||Typical ages|
|Ginase (voluntary)||5th Form (voluntary)||Captaincy School (voluntary)||18–19|
|Ginase (compulsory)||Captaincy School (compulsory)||15–16|
|Primary education (compulsory)||11–12|
Education in Tirol is mostly under a national curriculum as decided by the Education Ministry, through secondary legislation. It is also entrusted partly to the provinces who maintain a degree of control over arts and cultural studies. School attendance is compulsory from seven until sixteen, whilst full-time training, education, or employment is compulsory until 19.
Pre-school education, free in most states, is provided for all children between the ages of three and seven years and, whilst optional, is considered a normal part of a child's education due to its high takeup rate. Maximum class size is around 30, each class normally being cared for by one qualified teacher and one assistant.
Primary education lasts for five years, starting at age seven. The maximum class size is 30, but may be as low as 15, the usual range is 20 to 25. It is generally expected that a class will be taught by one teacher for the entire five years and the stable bond between teacher and pupil is considered important for a child's well-being. The 3Rs (Reading, wRiting and aRithmetic) dominate lesson time, with less time allotted to project work than abroad. Children work individually and all members of a class follow the same plan of work. There is a degree of streaming in mathematics, though assessment is the same for all.
Standard attendance times are 9 am to 1 pm, with hourly five- or ten-minute breaks. Children are given homework daily from the first year. Historically there has been no lunch hour, with children returning home to eat. However, due to a rise in the number of mothers in work, primary schools are increasingly offering pre-lesson and afternoon care.
Secondary education consists of two main types of schools, attendance at which is based on a pupil's ability as determined by grades from the primary school. The Ginase caters for the more able children, in the final year of which the preliminary examinations (prelimes) are taken, which inform the courses students are allowed to progress with if they proceed with education. The final two years of Ginase are based on reapplications to join in which students require a mark of at least 80% in four preliminary examinations, at which stage captaincy students may apply to join ginase for advanced examinations (A-James). Captaincy School is traditionally focused more on preparing pupils for vocational education, though in more recent years have had an increased focus on preparing students for preliminary examinations for progression to university. Some modern schools provide education for only A-James taking a comprehensive unselective input from ginase and captaincy schools, and are known as 5th Form Schools (Cuint Forma). There is an ongoing contest within the Labour Party regarding the abolition of the two-stream system with many advocating for the Cuint Forma model being expanded to the entirety of secondary education with internal streaming if any in schools. These proposals thus far have seen little support under successive Kindle Ministries, despite substantial support in the national council.
As with primary school, lessons at Ginase begin at 9 am continuing with short intervals until 2pm. Older pupils often attend further lessons after a break for lunch, generally eaten at school, finishing between 3pm and 4pm. As at primary level, all pupils follow the same plan of work. Great emphasis is placed on frequent testing. Satisfactory marks in the end-of-the-year report are a prerequisite for moving up to the next class. Pupils who do not meet the required standard re-sit their tests at the end of the summer holidays; those whose marks are still not satisfactory are required to re-sit the year. After prelimes, lessons begin at 10am and end between 4pm and 5pm. These timings are broadly emulative of cuint forma schools, whilst captaincy schools often have shorter days, coupled with industry placements or active training.
University is broadly available to those who meet entrance requirements, tuition fees are charged at around S1225 per term, of which there are three per year. These fees are funded by the government for students under 25 for their first three years of academic study, if their household income is below S300,000 annually, or their total household wealth is in excess of S4,000,000. In all cases an obligatory fee of S60 is charged for membership of the national student union and insurance.
Tirol possesses a largely rural economy with agriculture still being the largest sector of employment. Crude oil extraction and precious metals make up the largest proportion of the GDP, with gold in particular accounting for the plurality of the sector. Forestry is a large industry with a great deal of the country shrouded in forests, however, many of these areas have been licensed to high ranking government officials restricting the industry greatly.
The two hydroelectric projects on the Mayr and Adesc rivers and the relatively low electrical consumption in the country means a good deal of electricity produced in the country is exported.
Quebecshire has historically been the primary trading partner of Tirol, making it vulnerable to rapid changes in the Quebecshirite economy. In recent years trade has increased with the other Rhaetic nations in Northern Ecros.
Tourism accounts for almost a twelth of the Tiroler gross domestic product, and is one of the largest employers of any economic sector besides agriculture.
Tirol has relatively good transport infrastructure despite its heavily mountainous terrain. Tiroler engineers are the premier in the world at tunnelling through easily fractured limestone rock and all major routes traverse both mountain passes and mountain tunnels.
Road infrastructure in Tirol is relatively good, with five Autostrèdes reaching to every major settlement, though in the more remote areas roads are mostly unmetalled and are unnavigable by most vehicles. Currently the Autostrèda A6 is under construction which will connect Ampëz, the only provincial capital that is unconnected to the Autostrèda system. The Strèda Naziunela connect most major settlements to the Autostrèda system, which typically passes through many different valleys. The most important motorway in the Autostrèda system is the Autostrèda A1 which links Innsbruck, the capital city, to Balsan, the most populous city and economic centre, the initial construction of which cut the journey time from three days to several hours, cutting through the Prëner Pass rather than following the Inn valley.
The railway network with lines such as the Hochbahn reaching high into the Dolomita, is far more extensive. Some remote railways are administrated by the Rifles and as such military travel is prioritised on those rural lines. The five main valleys of Tirol have high-speed rail links, in addition to the Gherdëina valley, other areas are served by slower, but picturesque Alpenferata and their spiralling 19th century bridges and tunnels.
Tirol has over 100 airports and 40 heliports. Most airports in the country have short, unpaved runways. Only two airports have paved runways over 3,000 metres, Innsbruck Hall Airport and Balsan City Airport. Domestic use of rotary craft for air travel is mostly affordable only to the wealthiest and as such is rarely in use.
Tiroler culture is heavily focused on its Dolomite location, for example yodelling is commonly used as a means of communication. There is a tradition among the Catholic community to light fires in the shape of the cross on the mountainside before Easter. Those following indigenous religions are mostly concentrated in the far north, much of their culture focuses on the reindeer that render their lifestyle possible. Tiroler culture also has significant influences from the Rhaetic Kingdom of the land, as well as from the small amounts of immigrants from other nations, primarily during the 19th and 20th centuries.
Many Tirolean customs were created centuries ago and are passed on by the population for the next generations. Typical in the Alpine region are the many individual customs in the valleys. Due to the seclusion of the valleys, the locals developed their own customs. Many customs have been created by legends and narratives, others by the close connection to the church. There are also traditions that are cultivated everywhere in the Tirolean region and do not differ from other valleys and villages. These customs give local people an identity and thus feel the community more connected.
Modern Tiroler cultural practices are heavily regulated with outside media programmes requiring individual approval before being broadcast by the Broadcasting Agency of Tirol.
|Lyoan name||Local name||Date||A||I (A.D.)||P||T||Z|
|New Year's Day||Nanuef||1 January||•||•||•||•||•|
|Unity Day (End of the Civil War)||Festa dl Unità||3 March||•||•||•||•||•|
|Good Friday||Vënderdi Sant||floating holiday (Easter Sunday - 2 days)||•||•||•||•||•|
|Easter Monday||Lunesc dl Angiul||floating holiday (Easter Sunday + 1 day)||•||•||•||•|
|Labour day||Fèsta dl Lëur||1 May||•||•||•|
|Ascension||Christi Assënza||floating holiday (Easter Sunday + 39 days)||•||•||•||•||•|
|Assumption of Mary||Maria Assënza||15 August||•||•||•||•||•|
|Andreas Hofer Day||Andreas-Hofer Di||22 August||•||•||•|
|Festival of Perchta||Festa dles Perchten||25 November||•||•||•||•||•|
|St Nicholas Day||Sèn Miculau Di||6 December||•||•||•||•||•|
|Christmas Eve||Vueia dl Nadà||24 December||•||•||•||•||•|
|Christmas||Nadà Di||25 December||•||•||•||•||•|
|Saint Stephen's Day||Sèn Stefan Di||26 December||•||•||•||•||•|
|New Year's Eve||Nuet dl Silvestre||31 December||•||•||•||•||•|
|Total number of days||13||14||13||13||12|
The Tirolean cuisine is characterized by its alpine influence. Also, the historical influence of the former heptarchy can be found in the Tirolean dishes. These include dishes such as goulash, Kaiserschmarrn and apple strudel which are consumed in large parts of the country. Since the region is still relatively strong agricultural and peasant today, also many pheasant dishes are offered on the farms. Schlutzkrapfen, boiled dumplings or cold cuts with bacon (in German: Speck) or grey cheese is eaten on the farms.
The Tirolean dishes show only slight differences throughout Tirol. In the far southern part of Tirol, a lot of wine is grown and is therefore also an important part of the Tirolean dish, especially in Provinzia Trentin. Famous wines from this area are the Gewürztraminer, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Grigio and Chardonnay. Furthermore, a lot of apples are grown in the Provinzia Trentin. In this region also a food culture is cultivated with a mixture of Quebecshirite and Tirolean specialties.
The Tirolean Rifles were a militia organised in case of an attack on crown land, which required Tirol to defend its territory. The militia consisted mostly of citizens and peasants who were responsible only for the defence of their own land and were not obliged to go to war on behalf of the monarchy. They were authorised by an order signed by Margrave Maximilian I in 1511 that remained valid until 1918. The Rifles were also used during the Civil War in the Provinzia Adesc. After the abolition of the monarchy, the companies also lost their task of defending their country. Nevertheless, they remained as a governmental organization. Today, the Rifles are responsible as an organization for the preservation of the Tirolean culture and are always present at important political events in Tirol.
Many Tiroler customs were created centuries ago and passed on by the population for generations. Typically in the region there are many individual customs in each valley. Due to the seclusion of the valleys, the locals developed their own customs. Many customs have been created by legends and narratives, others by close connection to the church. There are also traditions that are cultivated everywhere in the Tiroler region and do not differ from other valleys and villages. These customs give local people an identity and thus feel the community more connected.
Torese Laufen in San Martin de Tor
Due to the mountainous terrain, alpine skiing is a prominent sport in Tirol and is valuable in the promotion and economic growth of the country. Similar sports such as snowboarding or ski-jumping are also broadly popular. Bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton are also popular events with a permanent track located in Schwaz, which hosted bobsleigh and luge competitions.
A popular team sport in Tirol is football, which is governed by the Tiroler Football Association. The national Tiroler football league is the Tiroler Lia Naziunela, which includes teams such as record-champions CP Innsbruck, CP Appan, Hall and Ziller Prima. Tirol is represented on the national level by the Tirol national team.
Besides football, Tirol also has professional national leagues for most major team sports, including the Tiroler Hockey League for ice hockey, and the Tiroler Basketball Liga for basketball. Horseback riding is also popular; the famed Riding School of Absam is located in Absam.