Terranihil

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Republic of Terranihil

Repuvlikila Teranǐl
Flag of Terranihil
Flag
Coat of arms of Terranihil
Coat of arms
Motto: "Samet čertis prokresaı"
"Steadfast towards prosperity"
Location of Terranihil
Capital
and largest city
Minaltar
Official languagesVaktrian
Ethnic groups
(2021)
Religion
(2021)
GovernmentUnitary one-party semi-presidential republic
• President
Draıčren Armǎk
Demrina Ŧeira
LegislatureHavrtarsh
History
1868
1928
1936
1952
1986
Area
• Total
5,156,000 km2 (1,991,000 sq mi) (6th)
• Water (%)
2
Population
• 2021 estimate
108.3 million (8th)
• Density
21/km2 (54.4/sq mi)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
₵1.39 trillion
đ87.95 trillion (8th)
• Per capita
₵12,849
đ812,000
Gini (2021)38
medium
HDI (2021)Increase 0.744
high
Currencydinar (TND)
Time zoneAMT-1, -2, -3, -4 (Terranilian Timezones)
Driving sideright
Calling code+62
Internet TLD.tn

Terranihil, (Vaktrian: Teranǐl), officially the Republic of Terranihil (Vaktrian: Repuvlikila Teranǐl), is a country in southern Ecros, spanning the continent from the Andaluzian Sea to the Caelean Sea. It borders Eleutherios, Montesayette, and Majocco to the northeast, Pavulturilor to the south east, and New Illyricum to the southwest. Jackson and Abersiania lay to the west across the Andaluzian Sea. It is a unitary republic that consists of 12 governorates (subdivisions). Occupying 5,156,000 square kilometers (1,991,000 sq mi), its geography and climate span from humid Andaluzian climate and temperate forests on the coasts to vast deserts and massive mountain ranges inland. Terranihi is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including the majority Vaktrians, Arameans, Acillians, Haythamites, Druz, Kavardans, and Jews. Religious groups include Astrians, Muslims, Christians, Habzists, Druz, and Judaism. Minaltar is the capitol and largest city, followed by Valeriana, Dastivus, and Sipaipa. Terranihil is the only country governed by National Progressives, who advocate for Astrian Vaktrian nationalism or Sentanism.

The name "Terranihil" was historically used by the Romanyan Empire to refer to desert and mountainous regions to their north. The modern state encompasses the sites of several ancient kingdoms and empires including Sumeria, Akadia, the Ayreoshubic Empire, Assoria, the Tundren Empire, and the Kingdom of Vaktria. The region came under foreign rule from the Romanyan Empire and then the Islamic Caliphates. The modern borders of Terranihil were created following the conquests of the Terranilian Empire, a Vaktrian ruled monarchy. The modern Terranilian republic was established in February of 1868 following the Terranilian Civil War.

The Republic had several decades of democracy mainly led by the Republican Party. However, the 1928 Terranilian coup d'état led by Liberal Democrat Amen Tǎzma marks the end of free and fair elections and a progressive slide into authoritarian governance. The Communist Party of Terranihil took control of the nation in the Ashura Revolution in March of 1936 and instituted significant socialist economic reform, including the nationalization of the booming petroleum industry. Communist president Enkart Vaslast was overthrown by National Progressive Arkašter Emvǎran in 1952, establishing the the National Progressive Party (PPF) as the ruling party ever since. Emvǎran and his successor Dečnan Mapem pursued policies that favored Astrians and Vaktrians, and Mapem introduced economically liberal reforms to improve the economy. Franz Foucault succeeded Mapem as president but was overthrown by Čezar Pisra after less than two years in the Silent Coup. Pisra was a PPF member but of the younger and popularly growing Pragmatist stance. Draıčren Armǎk peacefully took power after Pisra in 2006 and has served as president ever since.

Terranihil is a member of ACES. Considered an "authoritarian regime" by the Global Democracy Index, Terranihil is a de facto one-party state. The PPF uses the police, military, paramilitaries, and its intelligence apparatus to supress political dissent. There is significant ethnic and religious discrimination. Most recently the treatment of Kavardans has been described as an ethnic cleansing. Terranihil is one of the most corrupt counties in Ecros. It is also the epicenter of a billion credit narcotic industry, including illegal opium and captagon production and trade.

Etymology

The word Terranihil was originally an exonym used by the Romanyan Empire. It is a combination of the Romanyan Iberic words terra, meaning "land", and nihil, meaning "nothing". Together they mean "land of nothing" to the convey the meaning of a barren landscape. The Romanyans used this name for the desert and mountain regions to its north which consist of the Sadical Mountains and the Terranilian Desert. The Vaktrian word Teranǐl is a corruption of the Romanyan version, which the Vaktrians living in the Terranilian High Desert (also described as part of terranihil) adopted.

History

Ancient history

Evidence of human civilization in Terranihil dates back to the 7th millenium BCE during the time of multiple neolithic cultures. The history of Terranihill prior to its unification is often split into three sections that developed separately but converged over time: Alaia in the east, Kavarda along with the further inland regions of Terranihil, and Vaktria in the west.

Alaia and Kavarda

Also see: Alaia and Kavarda

The historical region of Alaia is an area located west of the Caelean Sea in Eastern Ecros. This historical zone is part of the broader Ancient Caelean Coast, in which some of the earliest known civilizations existed.

Alaia highlighted

Sumeria is the earliest known civilization in the two regions, emerging in the mid 5th millenium BCE along the valley of the Alaius and its tributaries. Sumerian cuneiform to inscribe the Sumerian language dates back before 3000 BCE. They constructed ziggurats as temples, some of which stand to this day. Sumerian land had poor land irrigation which led to increased soil salinity. This reduced agricultural yield and upset the balance of powe, weakening Sumerian-speaking regions and strengthening Akadian-speaking ones. Henceforth, Sumerian would remain only a literary and liturgical language. Sumeria came under Murtan rule until they were later conquered by Akadia in 2300 BC.

Akadia was centered in the city of Akad. The empire united Akadian and Sumerian speakers under one rule. During the 3rd millennium BC, a cultural symbiosis developed between Sumerians and Akadians, which included widespread bilingualism. Akadian, a Semitic language, gradually replaced Sumerian as the spoken language between the end of the 3rd and the early 2nd millennia BC. The Akadian Empire reached its political peak between the 24th and 22nd centuries BC, following the conquests by its founder Sargon of Akad.

The Ayreoshubic Empire originated in the Caelean Coast and conquered as far north as modern day southern Quebecshire and as far south as Judea. At its height between 2100 to 1950 BCE, it also controled inland regions including Alaia after the Ayreoshubics defeated the Akadians. The empire collapsed in 1900 BCE due to internal conflicts and famine. The Ayreoshubic alphabet also spread and developed into Greek, which later developed into the Iberic script.

Symbol of Babylon, the Lion of Babylon

After the Ayreoshubic Empire conquered Akadia, the people of Alaia coalesced into two major Akadian-speaking regions: Babylonia in the west and Assoria in the east. Assoria existed as early as the 25th century BCE (in the form of the city-state of Assur). From 600 BCE following the fall of the Neo-Assorian Empire to the 4th century CE, Assoria survived as a geopolitical entity dominated by foreign powers, including Babylonia and the Romanyan Empire. Babylonia existed from 1950 BCE as the city-state of Babylon until its fall in 500 BCE. The Neo-Babylonian Empire conquered Assoria in 600 BCE. Arameans began migrating into Babylonia in the Middle Period, and Aramaic grew to significant prominence while Babylonia was under Neo-Assorian rule.

The Tundren Empire, based in the region of Kavarda, was founded by Tundre the Great in 515 BCE. Tundre arose and defeated neighboring civilizations, including the Neo-Babylonian Empire, after which he officially established the Tundren Empire. The Tundren empire collapsed after the Romanyan Empire conquered the Caelean Coast, along with the Tundren Empire's provinces in the 1st century BCE.

Vaktria

Map of the Kingdom of Vaktria in 45 BCE

Vaktria is the homeland of the Vaktrians, an ethnolinguistic group that speaks Vaktrian. Proto-Vaktrian city-states existed along the Maplas and Kher rivers and the Andaluzian coast since the 2nd millenium BCE. The Chernastid dynasty ruled over the city-state of Dastivus since c. 900 BCE. Chernastum I, whom his dynasty is named for, conquered all of the Vaktrian speaking cities along the Maplas and southward by the beginning of the 8th century BCE. Chernastum declared himself Ultvar or king of Vaktria with Dastivus as the capital.

The Kingdom of Vaktria expanded northward, capturing several more cities, until it had conquered most Vaktrian-speaking people in 45 BCE. The ancient Vaktrians practiced Astrianism, based on the prophet Astera's teachings, which remains the majority religion of the Vaktrian people. The Romanyan Empire conquered and annexed Vaktria as a province in 130 CE.

Romanyan rule

See also: Romanyan Empire

The Romanyan Empire had Alaia under its rule from 60 BCE to 600 CE as a province. During this time, Christianty spread throughout the region and became especially common among speakers of the Pytabian dialect of Aramaic. The Pytabian Church of the West officially organized itself in 410 in Mestaga, Kagoria. The Church of the West shared communion with the Romanyan Church until the Council of Ephesus in 431. The Church of the West sided with Nestorius and broke away from the Romanyan Church. The Nestorian churches were persecuted and many followers fled to Kagoria. Most Kagorians practiced the native Kavardan religion of Habzism, while the ruling class practiced Judaism. Kagoria tolerated minority religious groups and the Kagorian Christian community grew. In 451, the Miaphysite Orthodox Churches, one of which was the Pytabian Orthodox Church of the Eastern Pytabian rite, rejected the verdict of the Council of Chalcedon. By the end of the 7th cenury, most Alaians had converted to Christianity.

Map of the Romanyan Empire in 300 CE

Romanyan Vaktria was a province of the Romanyan Empire beginning in 130 CE. Christianity reached Vaktria around the late 3rd century. Christianity would only firmly establish itself in Dastivia in the late 4th century. Vaktria remained under Romanyan rule until 325, when the Vaktrian revolt in the north led to the fracturing of the province into the Septarban Kingdom and the Romanyan province of Dastivia. Romanyan Dastivia saw the rapid spread of Vaktrian Christianity and separation of the Vaktrian Orthodox Church from the Great Church in 451. Dastivia itself broke away from the Empire 190 years after to form the Ragasan Kingdom.

Middle Ages

Kagoria was a Kavardan empire in western Terranihil established by the semi-nomadic Kagor tribe in the 4th century CE. The ruling elite of the Kagorians had converted to Judaism in the 6th century. The empire conquered surrounding regions including Alaia from the Romanyans in 600. Soon after however, the Mutadinun Caliphate conquered Alaia and Kagoria shrunk to only control Kavarda.

The Ragasan Kingdom was ruled by the Ragasan dynasty, founded by Ragas. Ragas led the revolt against the Romanyan Empire and the secession of northern Romanyan Dastivia in 515. The Kingdom was one of the earliest Christian nations, but had a major Astrian population. It engaged in multiple wars with its northern neighbor, the Septarban Kingdom. The Sagasan Kingdom was conquered by the Zuhraid Caliphate in 760.

The Septarban Kingdom was ruled by the Septarban dynasty, founded by Septarbus after revolting against the Romanyan Empire in 325. The kingdom officially practiced Astrianism and attempted to suppress the spread of Christianity. It was the rival of Romanyan Dastivia and then the Christian Ragasan Kingdom. The Septarban Kingdom was conquered by the Zuhraid Caliphate in 780.

Islamic period

The Zuhraid Caliphate expanded its borders through military conquest to become the largest caliphate and one of the largest empires in history. Alaia was transfered into Zuhraid control as it was already part of the Mutadinun Caliphate. It conquered Kagoria in 709 and then Vaktria by 780. The Caliphate facilitated the spread of Islam to the Kavardans and Vaktrians. Sunni Islam became prominent with the former, while Imranism, a Shiya branch was most common with the latter. Arabs also settled in some parts of Alaia and Vaktria. The Second Shia Revolution began in 870. Several Shia factions declared war against the Zuhraids. The Haltemids, an Imranist Vaktrian dynasty that had ruled Vaktria since 825, joined the fitnah. However, as the war progressed, they decided to form an independent caliphate instead. In 876, the Zuhraid Caliphate fractured into several smaller nations.

Map of 13th century Vaktria

Following the collapse, the Haltemid Caliphate had a period of peace until the rebellion and secession of the Vaktrian Christian Mikailan Kingdom in 973. The Caliphate defended against crusades from the Mikailans. The Terranilian Empire took much of the northern lands of the Caliphate in 991. The Druz Emirate of Araz won independence from the Haltemids in 1200, and the Haythamite Nasrid Emirate seceded in 1206. After several wars over more than two centuries, the Terranilian Empire completely conquered the Caliphate in 1253.

The Emirate of Mestaga was a Kavardan emirate in Kavarda with its capital in Mestaga. It was established following the collapse of the Zuhraid Caliphate. The Emirate of Mestaga was ruled by several dynasties, all of whom were Sunni Muslim. Aramea was a kingdom during was founded in 876 during the Zuhraid collapse. In 1272, Aramea launched the First Aramean Crusade against the Emirate, with the intention of capturing the city of Mestaga. Mestaga was significant for Pytabian Christians, as it is the place of establishment of the Pytabian Church of the West. Though the Church's headquarters moved to Valeriana, Mestaga still had a large Christian population. The crusaders were able to capture some territories to their west but failed to take Mestaga. The Terranilian Empire conquered both countries by the 15th century.

Terranilian Empire

The Terranilian High Desert and the Upa Forest was populated by Astrian Vaktrians for centuries. They had not been ruled by any foreign nations such as the Romanyan Empire or Zuhraid Caliphate. They began to transition from nomadic tribes and small villages into larger nations in the 6th century. In 934, Hetarvis founded a dynasty that would become a dominant nation in the High Desert. It was located at the edge of the Upa Forest in northern Terranihil. Ultvar Navaktan I of the Hetarvian dynasty conquered the Terranilian Confederation in 972, which marks the beginning of the Terranilian Empire.

Expansions

The Terranilians always wanted to recapture Vaktria, as it is the ancestral homeland of the Vaktrians and Astrians. Documented Terranilian folklore tells about a future return to Vaktria and restoration of the previous Vaktrian Astrian nations: the Kingdom of Vaktria and the Septarban Kingdom. Astrians had been persecuted by the Zuhraids, Haltemids, Ragasans, and Mikailans. Thus Terranilian writings often wished for an Astrian revival, its return to prominence in Vaktria, and vengeance upon Christians and Muslims.

Terranilian siege of Minaltar

In 991, the Terranilian Empire conquered northern parts of the Haltemid Caliphate, but was unable to expand further. Terranihil dealt with many difficulties in the 11th and 12th centuries preventing expansion, including Acillian invasions and famine. In 1197, the Haltemid Caliphate failed to retake its northern lands, which led to instability in the Caliphate and the secession of the Emirate of Araz and Nasrid Emirate. The Terranilian Empire invaded and defeated the Emirate of Araz and the Haltemid Caliphate by 1253. In 1344, the Empire conquered the Nasrids, and then conquered the Mikailans in 1356. Terranihil had thus conquered the entirity of Vaktria. Under the Empire, Muslims and Christians faced persecution. Astrians repopulated major cities that had been converted to Islam and Christianity.

The Trans-Terranilian trade route was established in the 3rd century CE by the Romanyan Empire. All routes crossing the Terranilian desert passed through the Terranilian Empire. The Empire took advantage of this and restricted the Vaktrian states's access to the route during war. In 1369, the Empire began planning for eastward expansion. The Terranilian Empire sent several armies east. It spent about three years fighting Acillians. The Terranilian Empire then began constructing military outposts near major trade routes. The Emirate of Mestaga became weary of the Empire's expansions. Additionally, many Acillians had fled to the Emirate to escape the violence. The Emirate began preparing for a potential war. As the Terranilian Empire continued to move east, the Emirate of Mestaga began to fortify its western border.

In 1395, the Terranilian and Mestagan border was formed. The two nations' armies first met at in the battlefield in 1398, at the Battle of Ankarishako, in which the Terrranilian army sieged and won Ankarishako Fort, the Emirate of Mestaga's furthest west fort. The Empire first captured Fort Tundre in Psydo in January of 1402. The Emirate of Mestaga recaptured it, then Terranihil retook it for the final time in 1404. Then the Empire under the Ilsamian dynasty resumed expansions in 1426 and slowly moved towards Mestaga. The Empire won the Battle of Mestaga in 1428.

In 1440, Terranihil invaded Aramea and took some parts of southern Alaia. Then in 1449, Aramea launched the Second Aramean Crusade to retake its lost lands, which was successful. Then Terranihil once again invaded Aramea and conquered the whole of Alaia by 1459.

Middle period

The middle period in Terranilian history is one of relative peace within Terranihil. It is an era of mostly diplomatic and economic expansion rather than territorial expansion. The Empire had acquired access to both sides of Ecros and thus a new group of nations of interest.

In 1461, the Quebecshirite Empire leased a coastal territory called Sainte-Delphine from the Terranilian Empire. Terranihil provided material support to the Monarchist Coalition for the Reunification in the Quebecshirite Civil War in 1607. Then in 1610, Terranihil sent its military to assist the monarchy until the stalemate. In 1621, Quebecshire relinquished Sainte-Delphine after defaulting on its lease payments.

Naval battle between Reykani pirates and the Terranilian navy

In the 16th and 17th century, the Terranilian Empire came into conflict with Reykani pirates. In March of 1656, Terranilian slavers abducted several hundred Reykanies from Cape Nátfari in an incident that became known as the Terranilian Abductions.

18th and 19th century politics in Terranihil came to be dominated by two factions: the Neortens, who supported an increase in legislative power, and the Ultvarans, who supported absolute monarchy. Discontent grew under King Astera VII of the Palern dynasty, who began ruling in 1788. Astera suspended the Terranilian Parliament in 1798 and ruled by personal decree. The tensions escalated, and Astera was overthrown in September of 1801 and replaced by Princess Cecilia in the Revolution of 1801.

Civil war

Uvran of the Tasrčera dynasty, uncle of the young king Ragas and highest ranking general, took de facto control of Terranihil in 1859. Uvran not only refused to acknowledge or implement Parliamentary legislation, he threated to completely abolish the Parliament and arrest its members on multiple occasions. Treatment of religious and ethnic minorities significantly deteriorated under his rule.

In 1862, he tried to centralized and institutionalize the Astrian religion by establishing the shortlived National Astrian Temple. In 1863, Uvran made Paitestanism the official denomination of the National Astrian Temple and excommunicated Thanists and Hadrianists, alienating many Astrians. In March of 1864, three Members of Parliament proposed a bill to abolish the National Astrian Temple. Uvran then issued arrest warrants for those MPs. Two were arrested while a third went into hiding. The Parliament demanded their release and for Uvran to step down. He refused to do so and arrested another MP for treason. The Parliament proceeded with the vote on the abolition of the National Astrian Temple and passed the law.

Battle of Talmyra

Many in the Neortan faction were Republicans, who wanted the complete abolition of the monarchy. This part of the faction had significantly grown since the Revolution of 1801 and then after Uvran took power. In November of 1864, several Republican MPs, governors, and other high officials declared that Uvran must renounce his title of king and release the arrested MPs and that the Parliament must deliberate on the restructuring of the nation's government, and that military action would be taken if Uvran refused to comply. Uvran condemned his opponents and began preparing for war.

Six of the twelve governors immediately declared their support for the Republicansin the Terranilian Civil War. They were led by Vutanin Siftira, governor of Dastivia. Three other governors joined the Republicans by 1866, while three remained loyal to Uvran. The war lasted until 28 January 1868. It is the most deadly conflict in Terranilian history, killing 150,000-220,000 people. The Republicans defeated the Loyalists, and King Uvran went into exile.

Early republic

The Republican victors of the Civil War held a constitutional convention in February of 1868, in which parliament, with the guidance of the governors and other officials, discussed the restructuring of the government and the writing of a new foundational document. In 9 February, the new Terranilian Constitution was ratified, marking the establishment of the Republic of Terranihil. The reforms included the abolition of the monarchy, an increase in the size of parliament, formalization of the position of prime minister as head of government, and establishment of the office of the president as a mostly ceremonial head of state.

Vutanin Siftira was elected as the first president. The Reform Party was establshed in 1892, which aimed to increase presidential power and increase centralization of the governorates. The Republican Party was officially established in 1892 as well, which had its roots in the earlier Republican movement. It dominated Terranilian politics, holding a majority in parliament, until 1908. The Republicans advocated for the primary role of parliament in governing.

In 1898, parliamented voted to add 120 more seats that were not related to a constituency. Voters would vote for a party rather than candidates and seats would be allocated proportionally to each party. This policy was pushed mainly by the Reform Party and several smaller parties hoping to gain increased representation.

Rise of the Liberal Democrats

The Republican Party began to fall out of favor in the early 1900s as the nation entered a period of economic depression and due to Republican leaders' inability to suppress the Cepezans Movement, a Kavardan separatist insurgency. In 1900, the Liberal Democratic Party (PĐL) split from the Republican Party with a platform of economic liberalization. In 1898, Hetarvus Frapem, a Reformist, was elected as president, the first non-Republican to hold the office. In 1900, he was assassinated by a Kavardan alleged to be part of the Cepezans Movement.

In 1908, the Republican Party lost its majority hold over parliament for the first time. It still had the plurality, but other parties had increased in size, particularly the PĐL. In 1912, the PĐL won a plurality, overtaking the Republicans as the largest party. The PĐL facilitated the formation of the Quebecshirite-Terranilian Petroleum Company (QTCO). Oil was discovered in 1916. Quebecshire owned 80% of the shares in the company, while Terranihil owned the rest. It first began producing oil in 1916 and quickly became one of the world's most profitable oil companies. In 1914, Liberal Democrat Razǎnem Mažel won the presidency, and then in 1916, the PĐL gained a majority in parliament. The PĐL continued to open up Terranihil to foreign investment. It also passed multiple laws strengthening the role of the president. The PĐL received criticism from the opposition for agreeing to such a low stake of Terranilian ownership in QTCO.

The Terranilian Communist Party (PKT) was also quickly growing. Founded in 1907, it became the second largest party in parliament in 1924. The PKT and Republican party formed the People's Coalition with its main points of agreement being the nationalization of QTCO, increased regulations on corporate power, and maintaining political power with parliament.

The PĐL became worried of a potential communist take over of parliament in the following elections. Much of the wealthy class of the nation urged president Tǎzma and prime minister Umar Šam to take action to ensure parliament would maintain a majority in the 1928 parliamentary election. The PĐL began planning methods of suppressing Republican and Communist voters. Quebecshirite officials also feared that QTCO would be nationalized.

Arrested communists being escorted by police in Minaltar

During the election in June, PĐL supporters and bribed police harassed and intimidated people at ballots into voting for the PĐL. Quebecshirite intelligence hired several Terranilian gangsters to instigate mass protests against the PĐL and to harass non-PĐL voters. However, the election results on August 1 showed that the People's Coalition was still able to win a majority in parliament by five seats. The PĐL contested the results, accusing the Communist and Republican parties of rigging the election.

Šam and other PĐL MPs refused to elect a prime minister until an investigation was conducted into the alleged election fraud. On August 4, president Amen Tǎzma instructed the Department of Domestic Security to arrest the MPs involed in election fraud. The next day, parliament held an election for prime minister with 31 MPs from the People's Coalition absent. They reelected Šam in what is considered the 1928 Terranilian coup d'état.

There was very little legal opposition to the PĐL. The People's Coalition was unable to form a strong opposition. President Tǎzma had high support as leader by many within the PĐL. The PĐL's earlier reforms that strengthened the role of the president allowed the president to issue decrees that went into effect immediately, unless overturned by parliament with a majority vote. To the public, Tǎzma and Šam appeared to have a cooperative relationship following the 1928 election with each respecting the bounds of their roles, but a power struggle between the two quickly ensued. On 1 June 1929, parliament held a vote of no confidence. Šam was voted out with 329 in favor.

In the following years, parliament further increased the power of the president, allowing Tǎzma to veto parliamentary decisions and increasing the presidential term limit from two to four. Communist and republican political opposition continued its attempts to regain power. Tǎzma continued to use tactics to suppress the opposition and maintain his position and a PĐL majority in parliament. In 1936, despite the PĐL's efforts, lost its majority in parliament.

Several militant groups were active during Tǎzma's presidency. The Cepezans Movement in Kavarda had been mostly suppressed, though its thought was developing into what would be known as Hezenism, an Islamic socialist ideology. The Astrian Vaktrian nationalist ideology Sentanism was articulated and developed by several thinkers.

Communist Terranihil

Rumors of a communist officers' plot spread in 1936. Many within the armed forces were discontent with the liberal democrat establishment, as military pay was low. On 23 March 1937, the day of Ashura, two dissenting officers, communist Enkart Vaslast and republican Karam Šaıa, announced a revolution with the stated intent of restoring democracy.

Vaslast giving a speech following the revolution

It began in Minaltar and spread throughout the nation, garnering support from left-wingers, republicans, and some nationalists. Tǎzma mobilized his forces against the revolutionaries, but he had lost much of his military support already. Tǎzma asked Quebecshire for support but did not receive a reply. On 26 March, the military arrested prime minister Deperzla. Tǎzma fled to Quebecshire. Several PĐL politicians were arrested, while exiled communists and republicans returned.

Šaıa, Vaslast, and other officers organized themselves into the Revolutionary Command Committee. It had ten members: four communists, three republicans, and three independents. Šaıa wanted to reinstate civilian rule and eventually desolve the Committee, while Vaslast saw the Committee as a precursor to a communist revolutionary vanguard. On 2 April, Šaıa declared himself interim president despite disapproval from the communist members of the Committee. On 26 April Šaıa was pressured into resigning by the communists. Some protests occurred urging the return of Šaıa. On 29 April, Vaslast announced that he would act as president until the 1938 election. He urged parliament to proceed with a vote for prime minister. On 1 May 1937, parliament elected communist Amelius Fakraš as prime minister. Vaslast placed Šaıa under house arrest on 15 May and proceeded to purge republican, liberal democratic, and nationalist elements from the military. Vaslast reorganized the Committee to contain only top communist officials, including Fakraš, essentially merging the Communist Party leadership with the committee. Vaslast won the presidency in the 1928 election.

On 28 August 1937, parliament voted to nationalize QTCO. The Terranilian government took control of all oil operations in the country. The company was rebranded as the Terranilian Oil Company (CZT). Vaslast deported many Quebecshirite nationals who had settled on the eastern coast. The parliament also enacted land reform laws, to redistribute and regulate land. Vaslast also began a literacy campaign which by the end of his presidency led to 97% literacy. The Communist Party promoted a state atheist agenda, purging religious fundamentalists elements from politics and the military.

Vaslast was heavily influenced by Amelius Fakraš, a Vaktrian Marxist writer who saw a combination of secularism, religious tolerance, and socialist pluralism as the only way Terranihil could be successful in reaching communism. Vaslast allowed other political parties as long as they were not reactionary, meaning left-wing parties were still able to organize and be in parliament, but nationalist and liberal parties were banned. Though officially atheist, the Communist Party tolerated religious socialist movements, including Hezenism.

Vaslast pursued a policy of internationalism, communicating with other communist nations and organizations including Ajakanistan, the Reykani Socialist Republic, Zloveshchiy, and Morova. Terranilian volunteers fought in the Creeperian Civil War starting in November of 1939 in support of the Miguelists. The Battle of Serrada occured on 26 June 1943 between Terranilian and Gandorian forces. Most Terranilian forces returned to Terranihil by 1945. Following the war, many Miguelist exiles fled to Terranihil.

Terranilian soldiers at the Battle of Serrada

Terranihil supported the rising communist movement in Eleutherios. It intervened in the Eleutherian Civil War in 1945 and attempted a bockade of the Jack River to prevent Jackian armaments from reaaching Eleutherian government forces, which sparking the South Ecros War. Terrranihil engaged in naval and air battles with Jackson and Kivu in the west and was then invaded by Pavulturilor in the south east. Terranihil had support from communist allies but was quickly forced to surrender, end its intervention in Eleutherios, and ceded a portion of Alaia to Pavulturilor.

Nationalist groups grew in number and activity, who came into conflict with Terranilian security forces and left-wing armed groups. A number of right-wing ideologies developed or came to prominence. Some groups modeled their beliefs on Creeperian Fascism, including the Red Cross Party (PKK). On 20 September 1947, fascist army officers associated with the PFT attempted a coup of the communist government but failed.

Vaslast's hold over the country began to weaken in the late 1940s and early 1950s. He had been showing signs of sickness. Some of his policies had also gained criticism. The Terranilian involvement in the Creeperian Civil War for almost a decade made some in the party and military discontent. Terranihil had also become increasingly isolated from the world and the global economy, except for its relations with other communist countries. Vaslast's policy of tolerance for minority religious and ethnic movements was also controversial among Astrian Vaktrians.

Progressive Revolution

Žapre Virǎt, a member of the communist party that became disillusioned with much of the Communist Party's agenda, developed national progressivism, an ultranationalist ideology that Virǎt described as "centrist", an "ideological third way", and an "alternative to the communist and fascist dogmas". Virǎt remained a member of the Communist Party but began meeting with other dissenters. He developed a following within the Terranilian Armed Forces, especially among disillusioned veterans of the Creeperian Civil War. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, rumors spread of the Marzat network, a clandestine national progressive organization within the military. The Communist Party tried to purge Marzat members, and arrested Virǎt in 1949. However, the network managed to infiltrate the highest ranks, including the Revolutionary Command Committee. Arkašter Emvǎran, a Marzat member and companion of Virǎt, joined the committee on 27 February 1952 and organized with other dissenting officers and politicians in secrecy.

Marzat officers after the coup

On 12 May 1952, Marzat officers arrested Vaslast and other members of the Revolutionary Command Committee. On 13 May, Emvǎran declared that the Communist Party was to be reorganized into the National Progressive Party (PPF) under his leadership. This outraged the Central Committee of the Communist Party, who continued to call themselves the Communist Party. This split led to a brief confrontation between the Central Committee of the Communist Party and the newly renamed Progressive Command Committee (PCC). In a process similar to the shift in power following the Ashura Revolution, Emvǎran reorganized the PCC to contain members of the PPF, purged communists and fascists from the military, conducted mass arrests against opposition politicians, and then declared himself president on 14 May 1952. Virǎt was also freed and became the chairman of the PPF.

Emvǎran government

Though Emvǎran and the RCC had the military on their side, they could not immediately suppress the other major parties without great violence. They decided to uphold Vaslast's policy of socialist pluralism to some degree, allowing the Communist Party and Republican Party to continue limited and monitered operation, but banned all other parties. These policies led to the beginning of the ongoing political and ethnic conflict called the Troubles. Existing armed groups and newly formed ones increased in activity. Militant groups fought with Terranilian security forces as well a with each other. Armed groups in support of the PPF also emerged to combat opposition groups, some of which committed acts of terrorism against civilian populations. The Terranilian goverment struggled to quell the violence, and its efforts often made it worse. An average of 1,200 people died every year in the 1950s and 1960s from to the Troubles.

Hezenist guerillas praying in the Alaian Desert

In 1958, due too discovered affiliations and support between the Communist Party and left-wing guerrillas, the Progressive Command Committee banned all opposition parties, thus making Terranihil a one-party state. Several Communist politicians were arrested as well. This policy further instigated the Troubles.

In 1964, the Troubles in the historical and ethnic region of Aramea saw significant escalation. Aramean militant groups had united under the Aramean Independence Movement. On 2 November 1964, the Aramean Independence Movement declared its independence from Terranihil, encouraging popular uprising and full mobilization against Terranilian forces in what became known as the Aramean War. Terranilian military and police were forced into initial retreat out of the region. The Terranilian military then sieged the rebel controlled area by land, air, and sea for six months, until launching an invasion that retook the territory by 23 July 1965. Aramea remained under marshal law until 1968. In 18 September 1968, Emvǎran and other officials met with key Aramean leaders and signed the Treaty of Aramea, which allowed most of the governorate of Pytabia increased autonomy under ethnic Aramean leadership, with the exception of Vaktrian majority cities such as Valeriana. The Terranilian military then withdrew its forces.

Emvǎran was elected to the office of president four times, the maximum number of terms, with his final term being from 1966 to 1970. The PPF considered passing laws that would increase the term limit to five or six or competely abolish term limits. Emvǎran decided not to change the term limit laws and announced he planned on resigning from the presidency once his term ended. Dečnan Mapem, his vice president, was the expected successor since he served as Emvǎran's chief advisor since 1962.

Mapem government

Mapem was elected president in 1970, while Emvǎran remained the chairman of the PPF. In 1972, Emvǎran was elected prime minister. Emvǎran was still generally regarded as the national leader, though Mapem was given significant power and independence and took initiative to institute reforms. Emvǎran died on 9 October 1977 of a heart attack.

Mapem (left) and Emvǎran (right) in 1967

Following an escalation in the Troubles in the east, Mapem led a National Progressive Party initiative in an attempt to end the Troubles and prevent a southern invasion by negotiating with Aramean and left-wing leaders. The Epiphany Treaty signed on 6 January 1978 declared peace between several militant groups and made political parties besides the PPF legal once again. Most armed groups in the east and several throughout Terranihil agreed to stop violence in exchange for official political representation. Although the treaty did not end the Troubles, it relatively quelled the conflict until the late 1990s and allowed Terranihil success in the border skirmishes against Pavulturilor until the Third Alaia War in 1984.

A schism was brewing within the PPF between two factions, largely over economic issues, begining as early as Emvǎran's resignation from the presidency. The so-called Orthodox Progressives, who supported the early writings of Virǎt, thus defending a "third-way" as opposed to either capitalism and communism and supporting the continued state centralization of production. In opposition, the younger Pragmatists sought to liberalize the Terranilian economy to allow foreign investment and private enterprise to flourish. Mapem was caught between the two factions and refused to choose a side throughout his tenure. However, he did approve many economically liberal policies, in an attempt to rejuvinate a stagnating economy. He facilitated the opening of the Terranilian economy to foreign corporations, though ensured a tight hold on the petroleum industry. Mapem also was important in the formation of ACES.

Silent Coup and pragmatist government

On 9 October 1984, Mapem died while in office and without a clear successor. Franz Foucault, an army general and Orthodox Progressive member of the Progressive Command Committee, stepped in with military support and declared himself president. Despite the army's initial support, Foucault and his faction's popularity was diminishing in the face of economic improvement as a result of the Pragmatists' policies.

Pisra (left) and Foucault (right) in 1985

Foucault led Terranihil in its declaration of war and attempted invasion of Pavulturilor over Alaia in 1984 as a continuation of the Alaia Wars. Foucault called upon other ACES nations to support the invasion, however they saw his actions as brash and refused much support. Terranilian forces suffered a quick defeat, which was attributed to Foucault by his opponents. Foucault had lost support even among the army. Foucault and his supporters claimed that Čezar Pisra, the leading Pragmatist and air force general, had sabotaged the effort for personal gain.

Rumors had spread of both an impending Pragmatist coup. On 22 May 1986, Progressive Command Committee had planned a meeting in the Palace of Cecilia. Foucault tried to mobilize supportive army forces in the capitol to arrest Pragmatist members of the Progressive Command Committee. His attempted self-coup managed to garner the support of one army captain and his company of about 100 soldiers. They quickly surrendered and were arrested by higher officers on the orders of the Progressive Command Committee. Foucault fled Terranhil to Quebecshire where he filed for political amnesty. He was later extradited to Terranihil where he was tried and imprisoned until his death in 1991. It was announced to the public, who were largely unaware of the events, that Foucault had attempted to arrest opponents and assert himsef as an autocrat. Pisra was declared the interim president until the next election. The events were termed the Silent Coup for the lack of any bloodshed.

Pisra was officially elected as president in August of 1986. He was reelected four more times for a total tenure of more than twenty years, making him the longest serving president in Terranilian history. Parliament elected to extend the presidential term limit from four to five in 2003. Pisra implemented policies which stimulated economic growth. Terranihil saw a large jump in its GDP, though also increased wealth inequality. He allowed ACES nations to build military outposts in Terranihil and station military forces there. Pisra announced in early 2004 that he would not urge parliament to further extend term limits beyond five, stating that twenty years is long enough.

Armǎk (right) and Sydney Johnson (left) meeting in Jackson

Draıčren Armǎk, a parliamentarian from Tolongen and the Director of the Department of Internal Security, was endorsed by Pisra and chosen as the PPF candidate for the 2006 election via an internal party election. Some speculate that Armǎk had used his power as director of the DIS to leverage party support. Armǎk recieved 91.6% of votes. The election was widely regarded by independent observers as not free or fair, with significant reports of voter intimidation, suppression, and fraud.

Armǎk has since been reelected four times and is currently serving his fifth and potentially final term, unless parliament once again extends the term limit. He has continued the self-described Pragmatic National Progressive policies established by Pisra. His foreign policy center around ensuring strong relationships with key allies, mainly ACES members and Quebecshire. This has placed Armǎk under criticism for allegedly being a proxy for certain nations. Part of the pragmatic foreign policy that stems back to Emvǎran is an indifference to the ideological stances of foreign entities, whether those stances are liberal, socialist, or far-right; this has led to Terranilian support of communists and Christian and Islamic extremists when it has benefited Terranihil despite domestic opposition to those beleifs.

Domestic policies have continued the policies of Sentanism, prioritizing the interests of Astrian Vaktrians. Armǎk has been criticized for facilitating numerous human rights abuses committed by Terranilian security forces, particulary against ethnic and religious minorities.

The Kavardan ethnic cleansing has been a particulatly divisive issue for the international community, in which the Terranilian government has committed a series of ongoing human rights abuses against Kavardans in the region of Kavarda. Led by the Progressive Guard, Terranilian security forces incarcerated between 50,0000 to 100,000 Kavardans without any legal process in internment camps and displaced over 300,000 others. Majority Kavardan communities have been subject to arbitrary arrests and siezures, with reports of Vaktrians repopulating forcibly vacated homes and residential complexes. This initially sparked a refugee crisis to neighboring nations; however, currently most Kavardans live in Kavarda under strict monitoring and police rule with restricted movement. These acts by security forces have been accompanied by attacks against Kavardans by Vaktrian militant groups, who are allegedly funded by the Terranilian government. The estimated Kavardan deaths vary from 50,000 to 200,000. Several hundred mosques have been destroyed or damaged. Other policies have included suppression of Kavardan religious practices, political indoctrination, forced sterilization, forced contraception, and forced abortion.

Geography

Climate

Topography
Ecoregions

Terranihil has an area of 3,204,000 sq mi (5,156,000 sq km). It lies between latitudes 5° and 20°. Spanning from one coast of Ecros to the other, Terranihil has a diverse climate, ranging from arid to semi-arid to subtropical.

The west coast has a humid Andaluzian climate which transitions into temperate broadleaf forests further north. The western inland region is called the Terranilian steppe or Terranilian High Desert which is drier and warmer than the coast. Terranihil is one of the most mountainous countries in the world, with the south central regions of the nation consisting of the Sadical Mountains. This massive mountain range, in which the highest parts are tundra, creates a rainshadow across central Terranihil. Northwest of the Sadical Mountains is a high elevationn cold desert. Regions northeast of the mountains are also high elevation but recieve more rainfall, and thus consists of montane grasslands and forests. Further north and east is a vast arid desert called the Terranilian desert, which spans until the east coast, which is similar to the west in its Andaluzian climate.

Fauna

The wildlife of Terranihil is composed of several species, inculding lynxes, bears, cheetahs, wolves, foxes, panthers, gazelles, pigs, camels, hawks and falcons. Terranihil has one of the largest leopard species in the world. The Andaluzian Tiger, which was the national animal of Terranihil before the Progressive Revolution, is beleived to be extinct; populations began dwindling in the late 19th century and early 20th century. The last sighting of an Andaluzian Tiger was in 1996. Terranihil has over 120 endangered species. Poaching of leapords, wolves, panthers and other large animals is common. The Terranilian government has implemented regulations to prevent the destruction of ecosystems and wildlife species. Poaching may be punishable by death.

Government and politics

Terranihil is nominally a multi-party semi-presidential republic based on its 1868 Constitution. However, it is effectively a one-party state with an extensive secret police appartus that curtails any independent political activity. The repeatedly amended constitution bestows extraordinary powers on the Presidency. The National Progressive Party (PPF) governs Terranihil as a totalitarian police state, through its control of the Terranilian military, the General Security Department, and the Progressive Guard. The Progressive Command Committee, which acts as the nation's de facto principle governing body consisting of top PPF officials, is responsible for the authorization of other political parties. The Global Democracy Index classifies Terranihil as an authoritarian regime. It is considered one of the most authoritarian nations along with Creeperopolis and Rakeo.

The President is Head of State and the Prime Minister is Head of Government. The unicameral legislature, the Parliament, is responsible for passing laws and debating policy. The executive branch consists of the president, the vice president, the prime minister, and the cabinet. According to the constitution, the president is elected by Terranilian citizens in a direct election. The position was once more ceremonial, with the Prime Minister being the national leader; however, reforms by the Liberal Democratic Party in the 1920s and 1930s strengthened the president's position. Presidential terms are four years and term limits are set at five. The current president is Draıčren Armǎk, serving since 2006.

There is no independent judiciary in Terranihil, since all judges and prosecutors are appointed by PPF officials. Terranihil's judicial branch includes the Supreme Court.

Terranihil's elections are conducted through a sham process of wide-scale rigging, with absence of voter registration and verification systems. Many nations do not accept the results of Terranilian elections.

Political parties

Main article: Political parties in Terranihil

Political parties besides the National Progressive Party were effectively banned between 1958 and 1978. The Progressive Command Committee has strict oversight over the four legally approved parties besides the PPF, which are the Communist Party of Terranihil, the Republican Party, the Aramean Popular Front, and the New Virǎtist Front.

Departments

The departments of the Terranilian government are the principal units of the executive branch and the administrative arms of the President of Terranihil. There are twelve departments, and each department has subdepartments. At the head of each Department is a Director. The General Security Department is the overarching intelligence branch of Terranihil, which includes the Intelligence Service and the Security Service.

Administrative divisions

Terranihil is made up of twelve governorates, each of which is composed of five districts for a total of sixty districts. Each district then contains a varying number of counties for a total of 356. Terranihil is a unitary state, thus political power is centered within the national government, with limited autonomy granted to local administrations. A governor and governatorial assembly manages each governorate, a district-minister and district assembly manage each district, and counties generally have elected councils.

Human rights

Human rights in Terranihil has long been a significant concern among independent organizations. Terranilian authorities are accused of arresting and censoring human rights activists. Arbitrary detention, torture, and disappearances have been reported. Also of significant concern has been the persecution of religious and ethnic minorities. The PPF's Sentanist policies favor Astrian Vaktrians in politics, economics, highe edducation, aand the justice system and discriminate against minorities. More recently, Terranihil has come under criticism for the Kavardan ethnic cleansing.

Military

The Terranilian Armed Forces are lead by the president in coordination with the Director of Defense, and are divided into the army, air force and navy. Several entirely or partially state owned companies, such as Thetázert, Nesterven and Red Kazgarl, produce weapons, vehicles and aircraft for the armed forces. However, much of the military's equipment is imported.

Foreign relations

Main article: Foreign relations of Terranihil

Ensuring economic development, increasing influence within southern Ecros, securing Alaia, and undermining threats to its national integrity and security have been the primary goals of Terranilian foreign policy. Terranihil is a member of ACES. Coordinating with ACES member nations at combatting CODECO incursions into Ecros has been a top priority. Terranihil has accepted extensive investment and assistance from ACES and allowed the stationing of the ACES Combined Force within its borders. Terranihil has been described as the Terranilian Barrier for its geographical, political, and military importance in preventing increased CODECO influence. Terranihil also maintains close relations with Quebecshire and Rakeo.

The Kavardan ethnic cleansing has put Terranilian relations with some nations under strain, particularly Paleocacher, with Terranihil completely ending diplomatic relations with Paleocher in 2018 following the Ernest Pyle investigation.

Despite ideological differences, Terranihil has generally maintained a pragmatic perspective on foreign affairs, with the willingness to cooperate with liberal, communist, and Islamist nations or organizations if it furthers Terranilian interests.

Demographics

Terranihil's population is about 108.3 million. The nation's population has been growing since the late 20th century because of a high birth rate. The growth rate of 2018 was 1%. The estimated population in 2050 is 140 million.

About 6 million people of recent Terranilian origin live internationally. Immigration to Terranihil is minimal.

Ethnic groups

Terranihil is very ethnically diverse, with numerous groups having historically originated or existed within the nations large borders.

Vaktrians are the majority ethnic group. Though they originate in Vaktria in western Terranihil, they spread through Terranihil during the Terranilian Empire by means of settler colonies or Vaktrianizing natives that came under their rule. Vaktrians dominate Terranilian politics. A majority of Vaktrians are Astrian and there is a strong sense of Vaktrio-Astrian nationalism in Terranihil called Sentanism. There are also significant Imrani Muslim and Orthodox Christian populations of Vaktrians.

Ethnic demographics of Terranihil

  Vaktrians (71.80%)
  Arameans (19.00%)
  Acillians (2.90%)
  Haythamites (2.50%)
  Druz (1.25%)
  Other (2.55%)

Arameans are the second largest ethnic group. They are a Semitic-speaking ethnicity from the region of Alaia in eastern Terranihil. The vast majority of Arameans are Pytabian Christian, though there are also Aramean Sunni Muslims and Aramean Jews.

Acillians and Kavardans are both speakers of Gesporian languages. Kavardans live mainly in Kavarda. The Kavardan ethnic cleansing has led to a significant drop in their population, with about half the population being displaced and tens of thousands incarcerated without trial. Acillians practice Habzism. Though Kavardans were originally Habzist, the majority are Sunni Muslim, with some being Christian or Jewish.

Druz are an Arabic speaking ethnoreligious group mainly living in western Terranihil. Haythamites are another ethnoreligious group in the west who originate from Vaktrian speaking Imrani Muslims. There are also Arabs living in the east. Farkmen are an itinerant group who originally came from Jackson. They speak a creole language that combines features of Jackian and Vaktrian.

There is significant ethnic discrimination in Terranihil, with Vaktrians dominating the political sphere.

Languages

Vaktrian is the official and most widely spoken language of Terranihil. Several regional dialects of Vaktrian exist; however, Standardized Vaktrian is the recognized form. Quebecshirite and Aramean are nationally recognized languages and are the second and third most spoken languages respectively. Quebecshirite is often taught as a second language in schools, and there are some native Quebecshirite speakers mainly in Sainte-Delphine. Other minority languages include Acillian, Kavardan, and Arabic.

Religion

Terranihil has been officially secular since the Progressive Revolution in 1952. It was an atheist state during the Communist Party's government.

Religion in Terranihil
Astrianism
55.04%
Pytabian Christianity
19.10%
Shiya Islam
14.24%
Vaktrian Christianity
5.87%
Sunni Islam
1.40%
Druzism
1.25%
Judaism
1.00%
Non-religious
2.10%

More than half of Terranilians are Astrian, followers of the native Vaktrian religion. Astrians dominate Terranilian politics and military. Habzism, the native religion of the Acillians and once of the Kavardans, is included under Astrianism in the nation's census.

Christianity is the second largest religion, making up about a quarter of the population. Most Christians are Aramean Pytabian Christians, followed by Vaktrian Christians. Islam is the third largest religion, with majority being Shiya Muslims of the Imrani branch. There are also Haythamite and Sunni Muslims. Druzism and Judaism are other minority religions. There is a minority of Terranilians who identify as non-religious.

Terranihil has limited religious freedom despite its ensurance in the constitution. Non-Astrians face significant discrimination in politics, the military, and higher education. The Catholic Church is de facto banned for its percieved Creeperian influence.

Cities

The nation's capitol and largest city is Minaltar.

Economy

Oil platform off the eastern coast.

Terranihil's economy has private interprise as well as central planning, with state ownership of oil and some other large industries. In 2018, GDP was ₵1.39 trillion (17th highest in the world) and ₵12,849 per capita. Petroleum is the largest contributor to the economy, followed by agriculture, mining, and textile production.

Oil

Main article Energy in Teranihil

Terranihil has many large oil reserves mainly near the west coast and operates many onshore and offshire drilling sites. Terranihil is one of the world's largest oil exporters. The government owned Terranilian Oil Company holds a monoply on Terranilian oil production. Terranihil has been described as a petrostate for its reliance on the petroleum industry.

Narcotics

Terranihil is one of the world's largest producers of illegal narcotics, including opium and captagon. Officials in the Terranilian government have overseen the production and international smuggling of drugs. The narcotics industry is estimated to be the second largest in Terranihil following petroleum. Some have described Terranihil as a narcostate.

Culture

Main article: Culture of Terranihil

Art

Terranihil has a long cultural history spanning several thousand years. Modern Terranilian culture is very diverse and has many influences. The numerous ethnicities, languages, and religions of the nation make Terranihil a mosaic of cultural traditions.

Music

Main article: Music of Terranihil

Each ethnic group has its own traditional music that have influenced modern Terranilian music, which combines traditional instruments with stylistic influences from northern Ecros and Ostlandet. The revival of Vaktrian poetry during the Terranilian Empire continues to impact music today. Underground music with politically and socially charged rhetoric often in the form of metal and rap have come to prominence in recent years.

Literature

Main article: Literature of Terranihil

Poetry has a long history in Terranihil. The 19th century saw a rise in novelists, short story writers, and essayists. Magical realism and science fiction have been popular genres in 21sst century Terranilian literature. Terranihil also has a strong philosophical tradition. Much of the popular recent Terranilian writings come from expats.

Since the 1920s, the Terranilian government has heavily censored politically dissenting writers.

Painting

Main article: Painting in Terranihil
Untitled painting by Prevest Festpan

Paintings in the classical Vaktrian style have reemerged in popularity since the rise of the PPF. Other style of art are common though some are controversial. Prevest Festpan is considered one of the greatest Terranilian painters, though denounced by the Terranilian government.

Film

Film making in Terranihil first began in the 1940s with silent films. Most early films were Communist Party and later National Progressive propaganda. A private film industry emerged in the 1950s and 1960s, producing several internationally acclaimed movies. Several Terranilian expatriate actors and directors have also gained international fame.

Cuisine

Terranilian cuisine is rich and varied in its ingredients. Terranilian cuisine shares similarities with neighboring nations. The main dishes that form Terranilian cuisine are kibbeh, hummus, tabbouleh, fattoush, labneh, shawarma, mujaddara, shanklish, sujuk and baklava. Terranilians often serve selections of appetizers before the main course. Za'atar, minced beef, and cheese manakish are popular hors d'œuvres. The Terranilian flatbread khubz is eaten together with most meals.

Falafel and hummus

Drinks in Terranihil vary depending on the time of day and the occasion. Terranilian coffee is the most well-known hot drink, usually prepared in the morning at breakfast or in the evening. It is usually served for guests or after food. Arak, an alcoholic drink, is a well-known beverage, served mostly on special occasions. Other Terranilian beverages include ayran, jallab, white coffee, and a locally manufactured beer called Shark.

Sports

The most popular sport in Terranihil is football. Terranilians watch the Terranilian National Football League and the Terraconservan Cup. The Terranilian national football team is one of the top competitors in the world. Martial arts, specifically Terranilian wrestling and kickboxing, and tennis are also very popular.