Siege of San Salvador

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Siege of San Salvador
Part of the Creeperian Civil War
Clockwise from top left: Ruins in Denilla in 1948, National Council soldiers in 1946, Imperial Council vehicles during Operation Watermelon in 1949, the San Salvador Imperial Palace burning in 1948.
Clockwise from top left: Ruins in Denilla in 1948, National Council soldiers in 1946, Imperial Council vehicles during Operation Watermelon, the San Salvador Imperial Palace burning in 1948.
Date17 May 1946 – 30 August 1949
(3 years, 3 months, 1 week and 6 days)
Location
Throughout San Salvador, with spillovers into San Luís, Zapatista, and the State of the Church
Result Decisive Imperial Council victory
Territorial
changes
  • Imperial Council retains control of San Salvador
  • National Council withdraws from San Salvador
Belligerents
National Council Imperial Council
Commanders and leaders
Units involved

Miguelist Armed Forces

Romerist Armed Forces

Strength
705,000 soldiers
45,000 paramilitaries
100,000+ militiamen
699,000 soldiers
60,000 paramilitaries
100,000+ militiamen
Casualties and losses
  • 289,000 dead
  • 357,000 wounded
  • 76,000 captured
  • 50,000 missing
  • 272,000 dead
  • 349,000 wounded
  • 68,000 captured
  • 50,000 missing
Civilian casualties: 2.7 million dead, 3.6 million wounded,
21.5 million displaced, 700,000 missing

The Siege of San Salvador (Creeperian SpanishCreeperian: Սիտո ել Սան Սալվադոր; Creeperian Spanish – Iberic: Sito de San Salvador), also referred to as the Battle of San Salvador (Creeperian: Բատաժա ել Սան Սալվադոր; Iberic: Batalla de San Salvador), and known in modern-Creeperopolis as The Siege (Creeperian: Ել Սիտո; Iberic: El Sito), was the largest and deadliest confrontation of the Creeperian Civil War between the Catholic Imperial Restoration Council (Imperial Council) and the National Council for Peace and Order (National Council). The battle was fought mostly within the department of San Salvador, one of the most strategically and symbolically important regions of the country. Due to its large and complicated nature, the siege has sometimes been considered to be its own war within the Creeperian Civil War.

The siege began in May 1946 with an initial attack by the National Council against forces of the Imperial Council. The National Council's failure to win a quick and decisive victory over the Imperial Council led to a stalemate and long-lasting siege, as neither side was able to break through the other's defenses. A final offensive by the Imperial Council in August 1949 forced a National Council retreat, ending the siege in a decisive Imperial Council victory. The civil war itself would later end on 30 September 1949.

Foreign volunteers aided both the Imperial and National Councils during the conflict. In support of the Imperial Council, the nations of Castilliano, Lyoa, and New Gandor sent divisions of soldiers to fight alongside Imperial Council soldiers. In support of the National Council, the nations of Ajakanistan and Terranihil sent divisions of soldiers to fight alongside National Council soldiers. The June 1946 Battle of Serrada is known for being fought entirely between volunteer forces: Gandorians on behalf of the Imperial Council and Terranilians on behalf of the National Council.

A total of 3.261 million people died during the siege, the vast majority of whom were civilians. An additional 4.306 million people were wounded, most of whom were also civilians, and 21.5 million civilians were displaced from their homes. Around 900,000 people were also labeled as missing (mostly civilians), with the vast majority likely having died sometime during the battle which would make the death toll over 4 million. The siege is not only the deadliest battle in Creeperian history, but also in human history.

Name

Due to the extremely complex nature of the conflict, the event has been referred to by several different names. Siege of San Salvador is the most commonly used name, however, the "San Salvador" in Siege of San Salvador refers to the department of San Salvador as a whole instead of the city of San Salvador, located in the center of the department. Other names used to refer to the military conflict include the Battle of San Salvador (not to be confused with other historical battles of San Salvador) and the San Salvador War.[1]

The conflict's two factions also referred to the conflict by differing names. The National Council referred to the conflict as The Final Battle while the Imperial Council referred to the conflict as The Siege. Later Creeperian government officials and scholars have also referred to the conflict as The Siege due to its importance in modern Creeperian history.[1]

Background

Failure of the Papal War

Imperial Council advances in the north

Prelude

Planning and organization

Final preparations

Order of battle

National Council order of battle

National Council leaders Logo of the Popular Front (Spain).svg
Clockwise from top left: Salinas Figueroa, Bolívar Aguirre, Espinar Casaus, Salinas Ortega.

The commanders-in-chief of the National Council forces in the Siege of San Salvador were Emperors Miguel VII and Marcos I while its overall military commanders were Chief Field Marshals Juan Salinas Figueroa and Miguel Salinas Ortega. The following is the order of battle of the National Council at the start of the siege:[2]

North–Lake San Salvador front

Army Group Mauricio Tasis Quesada – Field Marshal José Bolívar Aguirre

3rd Army – General Rigoberto Fernán Tasis
1st Amphibious Division – Lieutenant General Pablo Zaldívar Quijada
3rd Infantry Division – Lieutenant General Ernesto Cruz Molina
3rd Motorized Division – Lieutenant General Fabián Justo Fernández
4th Artillery Division – Lieutenant General José Yagüe Regalado
6th Armored Division – Lieutenant General Adolfo Serrano Tagribe
10th Infantry Division – Lieutenant General Calixto Morales Guerrero
11th Infantry Division – Lieutenant General Damián Herrera Herrera
9th Army – General Ricardo Rosales Román
1st Artillery Division – Lieutenant General Manuel Rojo Lucho
4th Infantry Division (Terranilian) – Major General Adam Gát
7th Infantry Division – Lieutenant General Eduardo Barcía Trelles
9th Motorized Division – Lieutenant General Arnoldo Rodríguez García
10th Mechanized Division – Lieutenant General Maximiliano Ferraz Sánchez
13th Infantry Division – Lieutenant General José Gómez Becerra
20th Infantry Division – Lieutenant General Fidel Olózaga Barria
2nd Flotilla – Admiral Lorenzo Sarmiento Elvira
2nd Naval Fleet – Vice Admiral Sergio Ascaso Azaña
11th Naval Fleet – Vice Admiral Juan Modesto Mejía
25th Air Force Wing – General Antonio Morterero Nores
East–central San Salvador front

Army Group Édgar Cazalla Beldad – Field Marshal Miguel Salinas Ortega

1st Army – General Alan Hurtado Ros
1st Infantry Division – Lieutenant General Álvaro Casanova Buenaventura
1st Armored Division – Lieutenant General Salvador Salinas Fraga
2nd Artillery Division – Lieutenant General Héctor Díaz Barrios
6th Infantry Division – Lieutenant General Ricardo Franco Budria
7th Motorized Division – Lieutenant General Roberto Saravia Casado
7th Mechanized Division – Lieutenant General Sergio Tuero Molina
8th Infantry Division – Lieutenant General Pedro Miaja Menant
9th Motorized Division – Lieutenant General Lucio Duarte Suñer
11th Army – General Rubén Alguacil Prats
2nd Infantry Division – Lieutenant General Joaquín Quiroga García
3rd Artillery Division – Lieutenant General José López Zamora
3rd Mechanized Division – Lieutenant General Santiago Castro Henríquez
4th Armored Division – Lieutenant General Gerardo Salinas Ortega
8th Motorized Division – Lieutenant General José Ugarte Magrina
17th Infantry Division – Lieutenant General Alfonso Giral Casares
18th Infantry Division – Lieutenant General Felipe Madrid León
130th Rifle Division (Ajaki) – Major General Ayushiyev Vassili
28th Air Force Wing – General Sebastián Pousa Frexia
South–Volcano San Salvador front

Army Group Joel Lacasa Campos – Field Marshal Pascual Espinar Casaus

7th Army – General Pedro Morillo Coronil
2nd Mountain Division – Lieutenant General José León Rivera
3rd Artillery Division – Lieutenant General Víctor Guerrero Guerrero
3rd Cavalry Division – Lieutenant General Mateo Verón Molina
4th Infantry Division – Lieutenant General Carlos Obregón Nariño
5th Armored Division – Lieutenant General Gerardo Jalisco Castro
6th Motorized Division – Lieutenant General Óscar Fuentes Flores
13th Infantry Division – Lieutenant General Félix Gutiérrez Álvarez
14th Infantry Division – Lieutenant General Isaías Duarte Duarte
8th Army – General Antonio Yon Sosa
1st Mountain Division – Lieutenant General Alexander Fuentes Dávalos
4th Cavalry Division – Lieutenant General Hernando Enríquez Linares
5th Infantry Division – Lieutenant General José López Alvarado
6th Artillery Division – Lieutenant General Martín Bermúdez Carpio
1th Infantry Division – Lieutenant General Vicente Raimundo Jiménez
16th Motorized Division – Lieutenant General Fernando Saavedra Córdoba
24th Infantry Division – Lieutenant General Francisco Goyena Irujo
27th Air Force Wing – General Dídac Pareja Campos
Paramilitaries (various fronts)
National Guard – Chief Guard Ángel Moruga Leoz
Atheist Red Army – General Secretary Mariano Alcocer Fraga
Special Task Squadrons – General José Huerta Milano
Elite Medical Detachment – General Carlos Madrid Figueroa
Apostates for the Cause – General Eustacio Mena Quijada

Imperial Council order of battle

Imperial Council leaders Cross-Jerusalem-Potent-Heraldry.svg
Clockwise from top left: Cabañeras Moreno, Primavera Sánchez, Díaz Molina, Barrueco Morterero.

The commanders-in-chief of the Imperial Council forces in the Siege of San Salvador were Emperors Romero I and Romero II while its overall military commander was Chief Field Marshal Alfonso Cabañeras Moreno. The following is the order of battle of the Imperial Council at the start of the siege:[3]

North–Lake San Salvador front

Army Group King Saint Miguel I – Field Marshal Juan Primavera Sánchez

3rd Army – General Agustín Sarmiento Cruz
2nd Armored Division – Lieutenant General Vicente Gutiérrez Serrano
4th Mechanized Division – Lieutenant General Martín Menjívar Ulloa
5th Motorized Division – Lieutenant General Leonardo Parejas Obregón
5th Infantry Division – Lieutenant General Emmanuel Guillén Rubio
8th Artillery Division – Lieutenant General Alfredo Tejón Duarte
17th Infantry Division (Gandorian) – Major General Krystian Matulewicz
23rd Infantry Division – Lieutenant General Jaime Infante Morales
11th Army – General Héctor Carballo Lain
3rd Amphibious Division – Lieutenant General Fernando López Fuentes
9th Infantry Division – Lieutenant General Adrián Cavallería Martí
10th Motorized Division – Lieutenant General Osiel Suñer Melléndez
11th Armored Division – Lieutenant General Héctor Molina Molina
12th Mechanized Division – Lieutenant General Víctor Castro Ruíz
12th Artillery Division – Lieutenant General Daniel Mena Linares
29th Infantry Division – Lieutenant General Jesús Tafalla Mancebo
Olla Volunteer Force – Brigadier Luís Larrazábal Ugueto
16th Flotilla – Admiral David Cortés Andino
16th Naval Fleet – Vice Admiral Benito Mori Díaz
22nd Naval Fleet – Vice Admiral Bernardo Herrera Callejas
3rd Air Force Wing – General Rolando Dávalos Abasto
East–central San Salvador front

Army Group Emperor Adolfo III – Field Marshal Máximo Barrueco Morterero

1st Army – General Miguel Luque Mazariegos
1st Infantry Division – Lieutenant General Milans Bosch Ussía
3rd Armored Division – Lieutenant General Federico Rivas Matadeltinianos
3rd Motorized Division – Lieutenant General Francisco Cortéz Ureña
4th Artillery Division – Lieutenant General Francisco Zapata Pérez
7th Mechanized Division – Lieutenant General Guillermo Prieto Umaña
8th Infantry Division – Lieutenant General Eduardo López López
18th Infantry Division – Lieutenant General Juan Alcabú Obregón
20th Infantry Division – Lieutenant General Carlos Prats Huerta
2nd Army – General Álvaro Chicote Villa
1st Artillery Division – Lieutenant General Romero Juárez Molina
2nd Cavalry Division – Lieutenant General Miguel Arrondo Varela
2nd Infantry Division – Lieutenant General Carlos Reyes Infante
9th Armored Division – Lieutenant General Venustiano Zaldívar Herrera
9th Motorized Division – Lieutenant General José Figueroa Regalado
16th Infantry Division – Lieutenant General José Miralles Tamayo
24th Infantry Division – Lieutenant General Enrique Yagüe Moreno
4th Air Force Wing – General Pablo Piñón Ureña
South–Volcano San Salvador front

Army Group King Saint Alfonso I – Field Marshal Jorge Díaz Molina

5th Army – General Miguel Saelices Cabal
1st Mountain Division – Lieutenant General Alfonso Casanova Fajardo
5th Artillery Division – Lieutenant General René Hernández Tassis
11th Artillery Division – Lieutenant General Luís Castillo Valdéz
13th Infantry Division – Lieutenant General Óliver Sanz Yepes
14th Motorized Division – Lieutenant General Antonio Flores Piñón
21st Infantry Division – Lieutenant General Augusto Hernández Molina
27th Infantry Division – Lieutenant General Javíer Castellanos Murillo
Lyoan Volunteer Legion – Colonel Manima Lama
9th Army – General Xavier Dávalos Carita
1st Armored Division – Lieutenant General Tomás Cabrera Negrín
2nd Artillery Division – Lieutenant General Hernando Dávalos Quijada
3rd Mountain Division – Lieutenant General José Revelo Bermúdez
4th Motorized Division – Lieutenant General Carlos Infante Molina
9th Mechanized Division – Lieutenant General Vicente Mola Sacanell
17th Infantry Division – Lieutenant General José Berganza Espiga
22nd Infantry Division – Lieutenant General Armando Sanjurjo García
Castillianan Expeditionary Force – Lieutenant General Maximiliér Cavaliér e Guerriér
7th Air Force Wing – General Aarón Tafalla Rubio
Paramilitaries (various fronts)
Imperial Guard – Chief Guard Gerardo Aguinaldo Villacrés
Creeperian People's Catholic Front – General Alexander Sánchez Molina
Militarist Nationalist Front – General Adolfo Rivera López
Falange Creeperiano – Captain Óscar Únzaga Vega
Camisas Negras – Caudillo Carlos Hernández Videla

Foreign military support

In the early months of the siege, various foreign volunteers and military units arrived in Creeperopolis to fight on behalf of either the Imperial or National Council in the siege. Foreign volunteers and military units were either sent by national governments or arrived on their own behalf on the basis of ideological beliefs.

The Imperial Council received support from four foreign nations: Castilliano, Lyoa, New Gandor, and Rakeo. The Castillianan government raised the Castillianan Expeditionary Force (FEC) which was composed of 7,500 volunteer soldiers in May 1946. As the Castillianan government was already an active belligerent in the conflict, many of its volunteers had some military experience from combat earlier in the civil war. The Lyoan government raised the Lyoan Volunteer Legion (LVL) which was composed of 2,500 volunteer soldiers in June 1946. The soldiers were mostly selected by the government to be sent to defend the Lyoan diaspora located in western San Salvador. The Gandorian government sent its 17th Infantry Division which was composed of 8,000 soldiers in August 1946. The military unit was sent in support of the Imperial Council due to ideological reasons, mainly anti-communism. The Rakeoian government sent the Olla Volunteer Force (FVO) which was composed of 9,000 soldiers; the unit was initially sent to support the Imperial Council in June 1938 and was reassigned to San Salvador in June 1946. It was mostly composed of professional soldiers, while some were volunteers, and the unit was sent on anti-communist ideological lines.

The National Council received support from two foreign nations: Ajakanistan and Terranihil. The Ajaki government sent its 130th Rifle Division which was composed of 6,000 soldiers in June 1946. The military unit was sent in support of the National Council due to ideological reasons, mainly in support of communism. The Terranilian government sent its 4th Infantry Division which was composed of 11,000 soldiers in June 1946. The military unit was sent in support of the National Council due to religious reasons, instead of ideological reasons, in opposition of Creeperian Catholicism and in support of National Atheism.

Additionally, some non-government units participated in the fighting. Despite not being organized into an organized military unit, an estimated 1,000 Senvarian mercenaries of the Senvarian Liberation Front (SKBF) were hired by the National Council to fight on their behalf. The National Council and SKBF had already fought together as allies against the Imperial Council during the civil war, with the National Council recognizing the independence of the Kingdom of Senvar (separatist state) in 1934.

Course of the siege

1946

1947

1948

1949

Propaganda

During the siege, both the Imperial and National Councils distributed propaganda to promote their own goals and vilify the goals of their opponent. The Imperial Council tended to frame the siege as an atheist and communist attack on Catholicism, the historic monarchy, and the Creeperian people, while the National Council framed the siege as a push for a final victory for liberty, equality, and the Creeperian people against fascism and theocracy.

International diplomatic positions

Diplomatic support for the Imperial Council

Diplomatic support for the National Council

Aftermath

Consequences of the remainder of the war

Casualties

Imperial Council casualties

National Council casualties

Civilian casualties

Commemoration

Monuments

In popular culture

Literature

Books

Films and documentaries

Poetry

Legal poetry:[note 1]
Illegal poetry:[note 2]

See also

Creeperopolis portal
Terraconserva portal

Notes

  1. "Illegal poetry" of the siege are poems written about the siege which are illegal to read and are suppressed by the Creeperian government. These poems generally were written by Miguelists, however, some Romerist seditionist and deserter poems are not permitted to be viewed as they portray the Imperial Council in a negative light.

References

Citations

  1. 1.0 1.1 Castaño Gil 1998, pp. 2–3.
  2. Castaño Gil 1998, p. Appendix B.
  3. Castaño Gil 1998, p. Appendix A.

Bibliography

Further reading

External links