The High Kingdom of Reia
出会い 王国 (Deai ōkoku)
Romaji: "Watashitachi no eikō to meiyo ga eien ni tsudzuku yō ni!" English: "May our Honor and Glory be everlasting!"
Government Seal of Reia
Green: Territory of Reia
Satellite view of Reia
and largest city
|Official languages||Reian, Quebecshirite|
|Recognised regional languages|
|House of Representatives|
|October 9, 1602|
|Februaru 7, 1868|
• (2019 estimate) estimate
|GDP (nominal)||2019 estimate|
|ʀ̥449.2 Hundred Billion Ren|
• Per capita
|Gini (2019)|| 0.33|
|HDI (2019)|| 0.915|
|Time zone||AMT+10, +11, Que|
Transportation map of Reia
Reia, Formally the The High Kingdom of Reia (Reian: 出会い 王国 (Deai ōkoku), is the only nation bordering Paleocacher. Reia's Western boundary is surrounded by Unclaimed territories, to its south is the Empire of Koryo the and Kivu Ocean to the east. The Reian capital and largest city is Tanjō (誕生). As of 2019, Reia has a population of ~90 million.
Reia is divided into 47 prefectures and traditionally into eight regions. Approximately two-thirds of the country's terrain is mountainous and heavily forested, and less than one-eighth of its land is suitable for agriculture. Consequently, Reia is quite densely populated. The largest urban area is the metropolitan area centered on the capital city of Tanjō (誕生).
Reia is a great power and a member of numerous international organizations, including the Terraconserva Council of Nations (since 1956), and Aurebeshia. The country maintains a highly modern and competitive military ranked as one of the world's most powerful. Following the rapid industrialization during the 1940s, Reia experienced record economic growth, the country's economy is the eleventh-largest by nominal GDP and eighth-largest by purchasing power parity. Reia is a global leader in the automotive and electronics industries and has made significant contributions to science and technology. Ranked "very high" on the Human Development Index, Reia has the world's second-highest life expectancy, though it is currently experiencing a decline in population. Culturally, Reia is renowned for its art, cuisine, music, and popular culture, including its prominent animation and video game industries.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History of Reia
- 3 Reian Government
- 4 Economy
- 5 Infrastructure
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
Reian word for Reia is 出会い meaning Birthplace, as to say that life sprouted from formerly lands now known as Reia, which is rooted from the Shintoism belief that the first men and women is said to have been created by the Gods in Reia. Gaining the Epiphet "Land where Man has Risen", additionally the native term for Reian (Demonym) is 出会いーじん said as Deai-jin, whereas the native term for Reian (Language) is 出会いー本 said as Deai-hon.
History of Reia
The Low Kingdom of Reia commonly known as Lower Reia was the first Great Reian Kingdom, which was led by the First King of Reia King Jimmu, The Low Kingdom of Reia established around 900 C.E following the Great Unification of the Seven Tribes lasting for 500 years, what initially started as a Hermit Nation birthed from 7 tribes, with the capital being Heian-kyō. Lower Reia gradually expanded as more tribes agreed to join, either from fear of war or for security and trade. Nearly half a Millennia of peace was interrupted when the Nation imploded upon itself due to the massive power struggles between clans resulting in the Sengoku Jidaior "Age of Warring States", a period in Reian history of near-constant civil war, social upheaval, and political intrigue from 1452 to 1602.
Sengoku Period (戦国時代) was initiated by the Ōnin War in 1467 which collapsed the feudal system of Reia under the Ashikaga Shogunate. Various samurai warlords and clans fought for control over Reia in the power vacuum, while the Ikkō-ikki emerged to fight against samurai rule. Oda Nobunaga dissolved the Ashikaga Shogunate in 1573 and launched a war of political unification by force, including the Ishiyama Hongan-ji War, until his death in the Honnō-ji Incident in 1582. Nobunaga's successor Toyotomi Hideyoshi completed his campaign to unify Reia and consolidated his rule with numerous influential reforms. Tokugawa Ieyasu displaced Hideyoshi's young son and successor Toyotomi Hideyori at the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 and re-established the feudal system under the Tokugawa Shogunate. The Sengoku period ended when Toyotomi loyalists were defeated
at the Siege of Kosaka in 1601
Reia following The Tokugawa Shogunate (徳川幕府, Tokugawa bakufu), also known as the Edo Bakufu (江戸幕府), was the feudal military government of Reia during the Edo period from 1600 to 1868. With 1602 as the official year Reia was established. During the early years of the Kingdom, it had also attempted to sieze lands on Reia's Northern border at the Reian invasion of Paleocacher, as a show of force for the New High Kingdom but was ultimately a failure. The Tokugawa Shogunate was established by Tokugawa Ieyasu after victory at the Battle of Sekigahara, ending the civil wars of the Sengoku period following the collapse of the Ashikaga Shogunate. Ieyasu became the Shōgun and the Tokugawa clan governed Reia from Tanjō Castle in the eastern city of Tanjō (誕生) along with the daimyō lords of the samurai class. The Tokugawa Shogunate organized Reian society under the strict Tokugawa class system and banned most foreigners under the isolationist policies of Sakoku to promote political stability. The Tokugawa and daimyō de facto administered Reia through their system of han (feudal domains) alongside the de jure royal provinces. The Tokugawa Shogunate saw rapid economic growth and urbanization in Reia which led to the rise of the merchant class and Ukiyo culture. The Tokugawa Shogunate declined during the Bakumatsu ("Opening of Reia") period from 1853 and was overthrown by supporters of the Imperial Court in the Hyuuga Restoration in 1868 was established under the Hyuuga government and Tokugawa loyalists continued to fight in the Boshin War until the defeat of the Union of Ezo at the Battle of Hakodate in June 1869.
The Hyuuga Restoration officially (日向維新, Hinata Ishin), referred to at the time as the Honorable Restoration (御一新, Goisshin), and also known as the Hyuuga Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical rule to the Empire of Japan in 1868 under King Hyuuga, and brought the beginning of the Hyuuga Era.
Although there were ruling Kings before the Hyuuga Restoration, the events restored practical abilities and consolidated the political system under the King of Reia. The goals of the restored government were expressed by the new King in the Charter Oath.
The Restoration led to enormous changes in Reia's political and social structure and started at the late Tanjo period (often called the Bakumatsu). During the Restoration, Reia rapidly industrialized and adopted western ideas and production methods. The Period faced several large changes within of the Hierarchy and Politics of Reia, after several protests from the people to allow for more Political rights and freedoms. Most importantly the King was reinstated as the absolute Symbol of Power, rather than the Shogun, however still having restrictions so as to prevent any tyrannical King in the future to abuse their power.
The Boshin War
The Boshin War (戊辰戦争, Boshin no Sensō), sometimes known as the Reian Revolution, was a civil war in Reia, fought from 1910 to 1915 between forces of the ruling Hyuuga Royal Family and the Noble families seeking to retain their power at the Council and Royal Court
The war found its origins in dissatisfaction among many nobles handling of foreigners following the opening of Reia during the decades prior. Increasing Western influence in the economy. Following the Hyuuga Restoration which lead to expulsion of Nobles and all their power in favor of Ministers and House Speakers elected by the people, this caused extreme anger within the Noble families of Reia. Following the expulsion of Nobles of 1868, Several Noble families secretly planned and prepared for war against the ruling Hyuuga Royal Family, in an attempt to overthrow the ruling family and government. 20 of the largest Noble Families began their covert operations at the northernmost region of Reia, Hokkaido where the previous Boshin war was also held. For fourty years the Royal Families prepared arms through the Black Market, recruited Noble loyalists to supplement their soldiers loyal to them. By the end of their preparation phase, the Noble' armies had ammounted to a total of 50,000.
The war broke out when in December 30, 1910, The Union army laid siege to the city of Aomori, where the Stationed KPG forces was severely outnumbered by a force of 2,000, almost simultaneously the Cities of Odate, Tsuguru, and Misawa fell to Union hands, resulting in the Misawa Massacre where over 3,000 service men of the Kingdom Peoples' Guard, the serving Police Force of the Kingdom, were brutally murdered, to send a message to the Royal Capital. Not a single prisoner was taken, with anyone who resisted was killed. news spread quickly of what was happening, less than a day later, all neighboring cities were ordered to evacuate. On January 1, Royal troops numbering 12,000 arrived in the cities of Towada, Hachinohe, Ajigasawa, Hirakawa, Hiroishi. They began their advance into the sieged cities at 8:00 am, King Hyuuga Mutsuhito's forces nearly lost on February 10 following a surprise attack from Union reinforcements, after Royal soldiers proclaimed victory in re-capturing the seiged cities. When Royal troops sighted Union soldiers attempting to climb the Great Wall of Hokkaido, finding themselves severely outnumbered, the call for backup was called. The Second Great Boshin War lasted for 5 years, becoming the bloodiest battle the kingdom of Reia has ever faced, with a total of 30,000 deaths, comprised of mostly civilians. With Royal and Union soldiers playing cat and mouse, the Union soldiers mainly employed Guerrilla warfare.
The War finally ended when the last few heads of the Noble families of the Tokugawa clan, Ashikaga clan, and Tsubasa clan surrendered to Royal soldiers upon foreseeing inevitable defeat. The War had lasted for a total of 5 years, and 2 months, officially ending on March 16, 1915.
The Hyuuga Constitution
The Hyuuga Constitution the fundamental law of Reia. It was enacted on May 3, 1868, as a new constitution for a post-Tokugawa Reian Kingdom
The constitution provides for a parliamentary system of government and guarantees certain fundamental rights. Under its terms, the King of Reia is "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people" and exercises absolute power, only irrevocable by a Council Vote of 95% Council Vote.
The constitution, also known as the "Post-Tokugawa Constitution" (戦後憲法, Tokugawa-Kenpō).Reian scholars reviewed and modified it before adoption. It replaced Reia's previous authoritarian system of quasi-absolute monarchy with a form of liberal democracy and placing specific limits on the power of the King Regent. Retaining many of the King's power but ensuring that said power is kept in check by the High Council of Reia. With Speakers of the house and Ministers elected by the people.
With the new constitution, the power allocation within the Royal chambers itself became much more equally divided, and gave the Reian people much more power. The Hyuuga Constitution has been in place for 152 years and has been given given edits with the most recent being the 1987 Modernization of the Hyuuga Constitution, further streamlining the voting process after several delays in the 1987 Election for the New Prime Minister.
The High King of the High Kingdom of Reia
The role of the King of Reia has historically alternated between a largely ceremonial symbolic role and that of an actual ruler. Since the establishment of the first shogunate in 1199, the Kings of Reia have rarely taken on a role as supreme battlefield commander, unlike many Western Monarchies. Reian Kings have nearly always been controlled by external political forces, to varying degrees. For example, between 1192 and 1867, the shōguns, or their shikken regents in Kamakura (1203–1333), were the de facto rulers of Reia, although they were nominally appointed by the King. After the Hyuuga Restoration in 1867, the King was the embodiment of all sovereign power in the realm, as enshrined in the Hyuuga Constitution with some limits in power.
Most importantly the High King holds the power to declare ware, and can only be dismissed by 80% vote in The High Council, the right to veto bills and laws, and the right to pass Royal Decrees.
The King's Birthday (currently 23 February) is a national holiday.
The Prime Minister
The Prime Minister of Reia (内閣総理大臣) is designated by the High Council and serves a term of four years or less; with no limits imposed on the number of terms the Prime Minister may hold. The Prime Minister heads the Cabinet and exercises "control and supervision" of the executive branch, and is the head of government and second commander-in-chief of the Royal Armed Forces of The Kingdom of Reia The Prime Minister is vested with the power to present bills to the Diet, to sign laws, to declare a state of emergency, and may also dissolve the Diet's House of Representatives at will. He or she presides over the Cabinet and appoints, or dismisses, the other Cabinet ministers.
Both houses of the National Diet designates the Prime Minister with a ballot cast under the run-off system. Under the Constitution, should both houses not agree on a common candidate, then a joint committee is allowed to be established to agree on the matter; specifically within a period of ten days, exclusive of the period of recess. However, if both houses still do not agree to each other, the decision made by the House of Representatives is deemed to be that of the National Diet. Upon designation, the Prime Minister is presented with their commission, and then formally appointed to office by the King.
As a candidate designated by the Diet, he or she is required to report to the Diet whenever demanded.The Prime Minister must also be both a civilian and a member of either house of the Diet.
The High Cabinet Serves as the second executive branch of the Reian Government, with it's power only second by the High King himself, The High Cabinet (内閣) consists of the Ministers of State and the Prime Minister. The members of the Cabinet are appointed by the High King, and under the Cabinet Law, the number of members of the Cabinet appointed, excluding the Prime Minister, must be fourteen or less, but may only be increased to nineteen should a special need arise.Article 68 of the Constitution states that all members of the Cabinet must be civilians and the majority of them must be chosen from among the members of either house of the High Council. The Cabinet is required to resign en masse while still continuing its functions, till the appointment of a new Prime Minister, when the following situation arises:
The High Council's House of Representatives passes a non-confidence resolution, or rejects a confidence resolution, unless the House of Representatives is dissolved within the next ten (10) days. When there is a vacancy in the post of the Prime Minister, or upon the first convocation of the High Council after a general election of the members of the House of Representatives. Conceptually deriving legitimacy from the Diet, whom it is responsible to, the Cabinet exercises its power in two different ways. In practice, much of its power is exercised by the Prime Minister, while others are exercised nominally by the High King.
the Constitution of Reia expects the Cabinet members to perform the following functions, in addition to general administration:
Administer the law faithfully; conduct affairs of state. Manage foreign affairs. Conclude treaties. However, it shall obtain prior or, depending on circumstances, subsequent approval of the High Council. Administer the civil service, in accordance with standards established by law. Prepare the budget, and present it to the High Council. Enact cabinet orders in order to execute the provisions of this Constitution and of the law. However, it cannot include penal provisions in such cabinet orders unless authorized by such law. Decide on general amnesty, special amnesty, commutation of punishment, reprieve, and restoration of rights. Under the Constitution, all laws and cabinet orders must be signed by the competent Minister and countersigned by the Prime Minister, before being formally promulgated by the King. Also, all members of the Cabinet cannot be subject to legal action without the consent of the Prime Minister; however, without impairing the right to take legal action.
The Ministries of the High Kingdom of Reia (出会い-王国機関) consist of eleven ministries and the Cabinet Office. Each ministry is headed by a Minister of State, which are mainly senior legislators, and are appointed from among the members of the Cabinet by the King. The Cabinet Office, formally headed by the Prime Minister, is an agency that handles the day-to-day affairs of the Cabinet. The ministries are the most influential part of the daily-exercised executive power, and since few ministers serve for more than two years or so necessary to grab hold of the organisation, most of its power lies within the senior bureaucrats
- Cabinet Office
- National Public Safety Commission
- National Police Agency
- Consumer Affairs Agency
- Financial Services Agency
- Fair Trade Commission
- Food Safety Commission
- Personal Information Protection Commission
- Imperial Household Agency
- Reconstruction Agency
- Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications
- Environmental Dispute Coordination Commission
- Fire and Disaster Management Agency
- Ministry of Justice
- Public Security Examination Commission
- Public Security Intelligence Agency
- Public Prosecutors Office
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- Ministry of Finance
- National Tax Agency
- Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)
- Agency for Cultural Affairs
- Sports Agency
- Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare
- Pension Service
- Central Labour Relations Commission
- Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
- Fisheries Agency
- Forestry Agency
- Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI)
- Agency for Natural Resources and Energy
- Small and Medium Enterprise Agency
- Patent Office
- Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT)
- Reia Transport Safety Board
- Reia Tourism Agency
- Reia Meteorological Agency
- Royal Reian Coast Guard
- Ministry of the Environment
- Ministry of Defense
- Acquisition, Technology and Logistics Agency
- Royal Armed Forces of the High Kingdom of Reia - RAFR (Ground / Maritime / Air)
The Board of Audit (会計検査院) is the only unique body of the Government; in which, the Board is totally independent from the Diet and the Cabinet. It reviews government expenditures and submits an annual report to the Diet. Article 90 of the Constitution of Reia and the Board of Audit Act of 1947 gives this body substantial independence from both controls.
The Royal Armed Forces of the High Kingdom of Reia (RAFR) maintains a budget of 11.23 Trillion Ren (105 Billion Quebecshirite Credit), which is roughly 2.50% of the Kingdom's GDP, in accordance with article 13 of the consitution, not allowing the military budget to go lower than 2.10% of the Kingdom's GDP
The military is governed by the Ministry of Defense, and primarily consists of the Royal Reian Ground Force (RRGF), the Royal Reian Maritime Force (RRMF), and the Royal Reian Air-Force (RRAF). The RRMF is a regular participant in KIVMOP exercises. Reia maintains a strong Arms Industry, however seldom imports it's products. The RAFR has 247,150 Active personnel, and 56,000 Reserve personnel. The Government has made recent recruitment campaigns to gain numbers, with heavy use of the Popular Reian Animations .
Domestic Law Enforcement
Domestic security in Reia is provided mainly by the Prefectural Kingdom's Guard Departments, under the oversight of the Kingdom People's Guard, and supervised by the Criminal Affairs Bureau of the Kingdom Gaurd.As the central coordinating body for the Prefectural Police Departments, the KPG is administered by the National Public Safety Commission. The Special Assault Team comprises national-level counter-terrorism tactical units that cooperate with territorial-level Anti-Firearms Squads and Counter-NBC Terrorism Squads.
Additionally, there is the Royal Reian Coast Guard (RRCG) which guards territorial waters. The coast guard patrols the sea surrounding Reia and uses surveillance and control countermeasures against smuggling, marine environmental crime, poaching, piracy, spy ships, unauthorized foreign fishing vessels, and illegal immigration.
All firearms and hidden bladed weapons are illegal in the Kingdom of Reia, subsequently the Nation's Crime rate is extremely low. The KPG currently has an estimated number of 13,000 active duty Guards.
As of 2016, Reia's labor force consisted of some 65.9 million workers. Reia has a low unemployment rate of around four percent. Some 20 million people, around 17 percent of the population, were below the poverty line in 2007. Housing in the Kingdom is characterized by limited land supply in urban areas.
Reian exports amounted to US$4,210 per capita in 2005
Its main exports are transportation equipment, motor vehicles, iron and steel products, semiconductors and auto parts. Reia's main imports are machinery and equipment, fossil fuels, foodstuffs (in particular beef), chemicals, textiles and raw materials for its industries.
Reia scores high in the ease of doing business index and has one of the smallest tax revenues of the developed world. The Reian variant of capitalism has many distinct features: keiretsu enterprises are influential, and lifetime employment and seniority-based career advancement are relatively common in the Reian work environment. Reian companies are known for management methods like "The Toyota Way", and shareholder activism is rare. Reia also has a large cooperative sector.
Agriculture and Fishery
The Reian agricultural sector accounts for about 1.4% of the total country's GDP. Only 17% of Reia's land is suitable for cultivation. Due to this lack of arable land, a system of terraces is used to farm in small areas.This results in one of the world's highest levels of crop yields per unit area, with an overall agricultural self-sufficiency rate of about 50% on fewer than 56,000 square kilometres (14,000,000 acres) cultivated. Reia's small agricultural sector, however, is also highly subsidized and protected, with government regulations that favor small-scale cultivation instead of large-scale agriculture as practiced in other nations. Rice, the most protected crop, is subject to tariffs of 777.7%. There has been a growing concern about farming as the current farmers are aging with a difficult time finding successors.
In 1996, Reia ranked fourth in the world in tonnage of fish caught. Reia captured 4,074,580 metric tons of fish in 2005, down from 4,987,703 tons in 2000. In 2003, the total aquaculture production was predicted at 1,301,437 tonnes. In 2010, Japan's total fisheries production was 4,762,469 fish. Reia maintains one of the world's largest fishing fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of the global catch, prompting some claims that Reia's fishing is leading to depletion in fish stocks such as tuna, but with recent attempts at conservation. Reia has also sparked controversy by supporting quasi-commercial whaling, which has now been banned by the government
Reia has a large industrial capacity, and is home to some of the largest and most technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemical substances, textiles, and processed foods. Reia's industrial sector makes up approximately 27.5% of its GDP. Some major Reian industrial companies include Canon Inc., Toshiba and Desi Steel.
Reia is the third largest automobile producer in the world, and is home to Hisota, the world's largest automobile company. the Reian shipbuilding industry is expected to remain strong due to an increased focus on specialized, high-tech designs. In recent years the Kingdom has been heavily pushing for greener vehicles, heavily supporting the Electrical vehicles movement.
Reia attracted 19.73 million international tourists in 2015 and increased by 21.8% to attract 24.03 million international tourists in 2016. In 2008, the Reian government has set up the Reian Tourism Agency and set the initial goal to increase foreign visitors to 20 million in 2020. In 2016, having met the 20 million target, the government has revised up its target to 40 million by 2020 and to 60 million by 2030.
Reia's service sector accounts for about three-quarters of its total economic output. Banking, insurance, real estate, retailing, transportation, and telecommunications are all major industries, with companies such as Hanabishi UFJ]],Mizuho, NTT, TEPCO, Nomura, Hanabishi Estate, ÆON, Mitsui Sumitomo, Softbank, JR East, Seven & I, KDDI and Reian Airlines listed as some of the largest in the world. The six major keiretsus are the Mitsubishi, Sumitomo, Fuyo, Mitsui, Dai-Ichi Kangyo and Sanwa
Reia's road spending has been extensive. Its 1.2 million kilometres (0.75 million miles) of paved road are the main means of transportation. As of 2012, Reia has approximately 1,215,000 kilometres (755,000 miles) of roads made up of 1,022,000 kilometres (635,000 miles) of city, town and village roads, 129,000 kilometres (80,000 miles) of prefectural roads, 55,000 kilometres (34,000 miles) of general national highways and 8,050 kilometres (5,000 miles) of national expressways.A single network of high-speed, divided, limited-access toll roads connects major cities on Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu (Hokkaido has a separate network). New and used cars are inexpensive; car ownership fees and fuel levies are used to promote energy efficiency. However, at just 50 percent of all distance traveled, making car usage surprisingly low.
Since privatization in 1987, dozens of Reian railway companies compete in regional and local passenger transportation markets; major companies include seven JR enterprises, Kintetsu, Seibu Railway and Keio Corporation. Some 250 high-speed Shinkansen trains connect major cities and Reian trains are known for their safety and punctuality. A new Maglev line called the Chūō Shinkansen is being constructed between Tanjo and Nagoya. It is due to be completed in 2027.
There are 100 airports in Reia; the largest domestic airport, Haneda Airport in Tanjo, is the country's second busiest airport.The largest international gateways are Narita International Airport, Kansai International Airport and Chūbu Centrair International Airport. Nagoya Port is the country's largest and busiest port, accounting for 10 percent of Reia's trade value.
As of 2011, 46.1% of energy in Reia was produced from petroleum, 21.3% from coal, 21.4% from natural gas, and 8.3% from hydropower. Reia lacks significant domestic reserves and so has a heavy dependence on imported energy. Reia has therefore aimed to diversify its sources and maintain high levels of energy efficiency. Currently the government is pursuing to cut petroleum dependency by half and switch to renewable energy by 70% by 2027.
Water and Supply Sanitation
The government took responsibility for regulating the water and sanitation sector is shared between the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in charge of water supply for domestic use; the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism in charge of water resources development as well as sanitation; the Ministry of the Environment in charge of ambient water quality and environmental preservation; and the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications in charge of performance benchmarking of utilities.
Access to an improved water source is universal in Reia. 97% of the population receives piped water supply from public utilities and 3% receive water from their own wells or unregulated small systems, mainly in rural areas.
More than 75% of the Country's population lives in urban areas, with significant concentration in the nation's capital Tanjo where 10.9 Million Reian's live, mostly in High Rise housing.
Reia has an extremely long life expectancy at birth of any country in the world: 83.5 years for persons born in the period 2010–2015.
Immigration and birth incentives are sometimes suggested as a solution to provide younger workers to support the nation's aging population. Reia accepts an average flow of 9,500 new Reian citizens by naturalization per year. According to the UNHCR, in 2012 Reia accepted just 18 refugees for resettlement. On April 1, 2019, Reia's revised immigration law was enacted, protecting the rights of foreign workers to help reduce labor shortages in certain sectors. The reform changes the status of foreign workers to regular employees.
Reia has full religious freedom based on its constitution. Upper estimates suggest that 84–96 percent of the Reian population subscribe to Shintō as its indigenous religion (50% to 80% of which considering degrees of syncretism with Buddhism, shinbutsu-shūgō). However, these estimates are based on people affiliated with a temple, rather than the number of true believers. Many Reian people practice both Shinto and Buddhism; they can either identify with both religions or describe themselves as non-religious or spiritual, despite participating in religious ceremonies as a cultural tradition. As a result, religious statistics are often under-reported in Reia. Other studies have suggested that only 30 percent of the population identify themselves as belonging to a religion. Nevertheless, the level of participation remains high, especially during festivals and occasions such as the first shrine visit of the New Year. Taoism and Confucianism from Jinhave also influenced Reian beliefs and customs.
Christianity was first introduced into Reia by Jesuit missions starting in 1549. Today, fewer than 1% to 2.3% are Christians, most of them living in the western part of the country. As of 2007, there were 32,036 Christian priests and pastors in Reia. Throughout the latest century, some Western customs originally related to Christianity (including Western style weddings, Valentine's Day and Christmas) have become popular as secular customs among many Reians.
Islam in Reia is estimated to constitute about 80–90% of foreign born migrants and their children, primarily from Karimun, and Greater Sacremento. Many of the ethnic Reian Muslims are those who convert upon marrying immigrant Muslims. The Pew Research Center estimated that there were 185,000 Muslims in Reia in 2010.
More than 99 percent of the population speaks Reian as their first language. Reian writing uses kanji (Jin characters) and two sets of kana (syllabaries based on cursive script and radical of kanji), as well as the Latin alphabet and Arabic numerals. Public and private schools generally require students to take language classes. Quebecshirite is a mandatory subject taught beginning pre-school
Besides Reian (Language), the Ryukyuan languages (Amami, Kunigami, Okinawan, Miyako, Yaeyama, Yonaguni), also part of the Reian language family, are spoken in the Ryukyu Islands chain. Few children learn these languages,but in recent years local governments have sought to increase awareness of the traditional languages. The Okinawan Reian dialect is also spoken in the region. The Ainu language, which is a language isolate, is moribund, with only a few elderly native speakers remaining in Hokkaido.
Primary schools, secondary schools and universities were introduced in 1872 as a result of the Hyuuga Restoration. Since 1937, compulsory education in Reia comprises elementary and junior high school, which together last for nine years (from age 6 to age 15). Almost all children continue their education at a three-year senior high school. The two top-ranking universities in Reia are the University of Tanjō and Shijō University.
Reia's education system played a central part in the country's development, when the Fundamental Law of Education and the School Education Law were enacted. The latter law defined the standard school system. Starting in April 2016, various schools began the academic year with elementary school and junior high school integrated into one nine-year compulsory schooling program; MEXT plans for this approach to be adopted nationwide.
The Programme for International Student Assessment coordinated by the OECD currently ranks the overall knowledge and skills of Reian 15-year-olds as the third best in the world. Reia is one of the top-performing OECD countries in reading literacy, math and sciences with the average student scoring 529 and has one of the world's highest-educated labor forces among OECD countries. In 2015, Reia's public spending on education amounted to just 4.1 percent of its GDP, below the OECD average of 5.0 percent. The country's large pool of highly educated and skilled individuals is largely responsible for ushering Reia's economic growth since the 1870s. In 2017, the country ranked third for the percentage of 25 to 64 year-olds that have attained tertiary education with 51 percent. In addition, 60.4 percent Reians, aged 25 to 34 have some form of tertiary education qualification and bachelor's degrees are held by 30.4 percent of Reians aged 25 to 64, the second most in the OECD after Koryo.
In Reia, health care is provided by national and local governments. Payment for personal medical services is offered through a universal health insurance system that provides relative equality of access, with fees set by a government committee. People without insurance through employers can participate in a national health insurance program administered by local governments. Since 1973, all elderly persons have been covered by government-sponsored insurance.
Reia has a high suicide rate; suicide is the leading cause of death for people under 30. Another significant public health issue is smoking. Reia has the lowest rate of heart disease in the OECD, and the lowest level of dementia in the developed world.
Contemporary Reian culture combines influences from the Eastern Landmass, Quebecshire, as well as aspects of Korean culture, and heavily influence by Jin culture. Traditional Reian arts include crafts such as ceramics, textiles, lacquerware, swords and Reian dolls; performances of Bunraku, kabuki, noh, dance, and rakugo; and other practices, the tea ceremony, ikebana, Reian martial arts, Reian calligraphy, origami, onsen, Geisha and games. Reia has a developed system for the protection and promotion of both tangible and intangible Cultural Properties and National Treasures. Twenty-two sites have been inscribed on the World Heritage List, eighteen of which are of cultural significance.
Reian Art and architecture
Reian sculptures, largely of wood, and Reian paintings are among the oldest of the Reian arts, with early figurative paintings dating to at least 300 BC. The history of Reian painting exhibits synthesis and competition between native Reian esthetics and imported ideas. The interaction between Reian and western art has been significant: for example ukiyo-e prints, which began to be exported in the 19th century in the movement known as Reianism, had a significant influence on the development of modern art in the West, most notably on post-Impressionism. Reian manga developed in the 20th century and have become popular worldwide.
Reian architecture is a combination between local and other influences. It has traditionally been typified by wooden structures, elevated slightly off the ground, with tiled or thatched roofs. The Shrines of Ise have been celebrated as the prototype of Reian architecture. Largely of wood, traditional housing and many temple buildings see the use of tatami mats and sliding doors that break down the distinction between rooms and indoor and outdoor space. Since the 19th century, however, Reia has incorporated much of Western, modern, and post-modern architecture into construction and design. Architects returning from study with western architects introduced the International Style of modernism into Reia. However, it was not until after the 1930s that Reian architects made an impression on the international scene, firstly with the work of architects like Kenzō Tange and then with movements like Metabolism.