Proto-Terranilic language

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Proto-Terranilic
RegionTerranihil
Era2nd millenium BC
Reconstructed
ancestors
Lower-order reconstructions
Ancient Terranilian

Proto-Terranilic, or proto-Terranilian, often abbreviated as PTN, is the reconstructed proto-language of the Terranilian languages branch of the Shazaqanic language family and thus the ancestor of the Terranilic languages such as Terranilian and Póniepan. Its speakers, the hypothetical Proto-Terranilic people, are assumed to have lived in the 2nd millennium BC.

Proto-Terranilic was a satem language descended from the Proto-Terranilian-Azumanakan language (PTA), which in turn, came from the Proto-Shazaqanic language(PSQ). It was likely removed a millennium from the Proto-Terranilian-Azumanakan language, and less than two millennia from Proto-Shazaqanic.

Phonology

Consonants
Labial Coronal Palatal Velar Laryngeal
dental/alveolar post-alveolar
Plosive voiceless /p/ p /t/ t /k/ k
voiced /b/ b /d/ d /g/ g
aspirated /bʰ/ bʰ /dʰ/ dʰ /gʰ/ gʰ
Affricate voiceless (/c͡ç/) ç
voiced (ɟ͡ʝ) j
Fricative

voiceless

/s/ s /ʃ/ š /ʕ/ H
voiced /z/ z /ʒ/ ž
Nasal /m/ m /n/ n
Liquid /r/ r
Semivowel /j/ y /w/ w
Vowels
High *i *ī *u *ū
Low *a *ā

Phonological evolution from PTA

The most distinctive phonological change separating Proto-Shazaqanic from Proto-Terranilian-Azumanakan is the collapse of the ablauting vowels e, o, a into a single vowel, Proto-Terranilian-Azumanakan a.

The list below shows hypothesized phonological changes from Proto-Shazaqanic to Proto-Terranilian-Azumanakan to Proto-Terranilic.

  • The Satem shift, consisting of two sets of related changes. The PSQ palatals ḱ ǵ ǵʰ are fronted or affricated, eventually resulting in PTA ć ȷ́ ȷ́ʰ, while the PSQ labiovelars kʷ gʷ gʷʰ merge with the velars k g gʰ.
  • ć ȷ́ ȷ́ʰ and the second palatal set (shown further below) merge into c j jʰ from PTA to PTN. k and c are aspirated to and at the beginning of words if followed by a vowel.
PSQ PTA PTN Sanskrit Avestan Latin English
ḱm̥tóm *ćatám etam śatám satəm centum 'hundred'
ǵónu *ȷ́ā́nu jānu jā́nu zānu genū 'knee'
ǵʰimós *ȷ́ʰimás imas himá ziiā̊ hiems 'winter' / 'snow'
kʷós *kás as kás ka quis 'who?, what?'
gʷṓws *gā́wš gāwš gaus gao bōs 'cow'
gʷʰormós *gʰarmás armas gharmás garəma formus 'warmth, heat'
  • The ISQ liquids l r merge as r in PTA.
  • merges with r in PTN.
PSQ PTA PTN Sanskrit Avestan Latin English
ḱléwos *ćráwas crawas śrávas srauua clueō 'fame, honour, word'
wĺ̥kʷos *wŕ̥kas wrkas vŕ̥kas vəhrka lupus 'wolf'
  • The PSQ syllabic nasals merge with *a.
PSQ pre-PTA PTA PTN Sanskrit Avestan Latin English
déḱm̥ *dáĉm̥ *dáća deca dáśa dasā decem 'ten'
gʷm̥tós *gm̥tás *gatás getas gatá gata ventus 'come, gone'
n̥bʰrós *n̥bʰrás *abʰrás abras abhrá aβra imber 'rain, cloud'
  • From PSQ to PTA, an aspirate immediately followed by a voiceless consonant becomes voiced stop + voiced aspirate. In addition, dʰ + t > dᶻdʰ.
  • From PTA to PTN, voiced aspirates preceded by voiced stops become unvoiced.
PSQ PTA PTN Sanskrit Avestan English
ubʰtós *ubdʰás ubas sámubdha ubdaēna 'woven' / 'made of woven material'
wr̥dʰtós *wr̥dᶻdʰás wrda vərəzda 'grown, mature'
dʰéwgʰti *dáwgdʰi dawgi dógdhi *daogdi 'to milk'
  • From PSQ to PTA, s is retracted to š when immediately following a liquid (r r̥ l l̥), a high vowel (i u), a PTA velar (ḱ ǵ ǵʰ k g gʰ kʷ gʷ gʷʰ) or the syllabic laryngeal .
  • From PTA to PTN, š is voiced when between two vowels.
PSQ PTA PTN Sanskrit Avestan Latin English
wisós *wišás wižas víṣas viša vīrus 'poison, venom'
ḱeHs- *ćH̥šam cešam aśiṣam sīšā 'teach!'
ǵéwseti *ȷ́áwšati jawšati jóṣati zaošō gustus 'to like, taste'
kʷsép- *kšáp- kšap- kṣáp- xšap- 'darkness'
plúsis *plúšiš pluž plúṣi *fruši pūlex 'flea, noxious insect'
nisdós *niždás niždas nīḷá/nīḍá *nižda nīdus 'nest'


  • From PSQ to PTA, before a dental occlusive, ĉ becomes š and ĵ becomes ž. ĵʰ also becomes ž, with aspiration of the occlusive.
  • From PTA to PTN, žd becomes .
PSQ pre-PTA PTA PTN Sanskrit Avestan Latin English
h₁oḱtṓ *Haĉtā́ *Haštā́ haštā aṣṭá ašta octō 'eight'
dr̥ḱtós *dr̥ĉtás *dr̥štás drštas dr̥ṣṭá dərəšta 'seen, visible, apparent'
mr̥ǵt- *mr̥ĵd- *mr̥žd- mr- mr̥ḷ-/mr̥ḍ- mərəžd- 'to forgive, pardon'
uǵʰtós *uĵdʰás *uždʰás uas ūḍhá *užda vector 'carried'
  • From PSQ to PTA, the sequence ĉš was simplified to šš.
  • From PTA to PTN, šš is simplified to š.
PSQ pre-PTA PTA PTN Sanskrit Avestan Latin English
h₂éḱs- *Háĉšas *Háššas hašas ákṣa aša axis 'axle, shoulder'
  • From PSQ to PTA, the "second palatalization": k g gʰ develop palatal allophones č ǰ ǰʰ before the front vowels i, e through an intermediate kʲ gʲ gʲʰ.
  • č ǰ ǰʰ merge into c j jʰ.
PSQ pre-PTA PTA PTN Sanskrit Avestan Latin English
-kʷe *-kʲa *-ča -ca -ca -ča -que 'and'
gʷih₃wós *gʲiHwás *ǰiHwás ji'was jīvás juuō vīvus 'alive, living'
gʷʰénti *gʲʰánti *ǰʰánti anti hánti jaiṇti -fendit 'slays'
  • o in an open syllable lengthens to ō in PTA.
PSQ pre-PTA PTA PTN Sanskrit Avestan Latin English
deh₃tórm̥ *daHtā́rm̥ *daHtā́ram da'tāram dātā́ram dātārəm datōrem 'giver' (accusative singular)
  • The vowels e o merge with a. Similarly, ē ō merge with ā in PSQ.
  • ā and a between two plosives becomes ē and e.
PSQ PTA PTN Sanskrit Avestan Latin English
dédeh₃ti *dádaHti deda'ti dádāti dadāiti dat 'to give'
h₃dónts *Hdánts dants dant dantan dēns 'tooth'
bʰréh₂tēr *bʰráHtā gra'tā bhrā́tr̥ brātar frāter 'brother'
wṓkʷs *wā́kš wākš vā́k vāxš vōx 'voice'
  • In certain positions, laryngeals were vocalized to i in PSQ.
  • Following a consonant, and preceding a consonant cluster:
PSQ PTA PTN Sanskrit Avestan Latin English
ph₂tréy *pitráy pitray pitré piθrē patrī 'father' (dative singular)
  • Following a consonant and word-final:
PSQ PTA PTN Sanskrit Avestan English
-medʰh₂ *-madʰHi -madi -mahi -maidī/-maiδi (1st person plural middle ending)
  • The PSQ laryngeals all merged into one phoneme H, which may have been a glottal stop.
  • The PTA laryngeal H became e between two consonants, h at the beginning of a syllable if followed by a vowel, and otherwise became a glottal stop: '.
PSQ PTA PTN Sanskrit Avestan Latin English
ph₂tḗr *pHtā́ pe pitā́ ptā pater 'father'
  • From PSQ to PTA, H disappeared when followed by a voiced nonaspirated stop and another consonant.
PSQ PTA PTN Sanskrit Avestan English
bʰéh₂geti *bʰáǰati bʰajati bhájati bažat̰ 'to divide, distribute'
  • In PTN all consonants followed by another consonant lost aspiration.


Morphology

Morphological evolution from PTA

Evolution into Old Terranilian