Proto-Terranilian-Azumanakan language

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Proto-Terranilian-Azumanakan
RegionTerranihil and northern Greater Sacramento
Erac. 3rd millenium BC
Reconstructed
ancestor
Lower-order reconstructions

Proto-Terranilian-Azumanakan is the reconstructed proto-language of the Terranilian-Azumanakan branch of Shazaqanic. Its speakers, the hypothetical Proto-Terranilian-Azumanakans, are assumed to have lived in the late 4th millennium BCE.

Proto-Terranilian-Azumanakan was a satem language, likely removed less than a millennium from its ancestor, the Proto-Shazaqanic language. It is the ancestor of the Terranilian languages and the Azumanakan-Shazaqanic languages.

Phonology

Consonants
Labial Coronal Palatal Velar Laryngeal
dental/alveolar post-alveolar first second
Plosive voiceless /p/ p /t/ t /c/ ć /c/ č /k/ k
voiced /b/ b /d/ d /ɟ/ ȷ́ /ɟ/ ǰ /g/ g
aspirated /bʰ/ bʰ /dʰ/ dʰ /ɟʰ/ ȷ́ʰ /ɟʰ/ ǰʰ /gʰ/ gʰ
Fricative

voiceless

/s/ s /ʃ/ ś /ʕ/ H
voiced /z/ z /ʒ/ ź
Nasal /m/ m /n/ n
Liquid /l/ l /r/ r, /r̥/ r̥
Semivowel /j/ y /w/ w
Vowels
High i ī u ū
Low a ā

Evolution from Proto-Shazaqanic

The most distinctive phonological change separating Proto-Shazaqanic from Proto-Terranilian-Azumanakan is the collapse of the ablauting vowels e, o, a into a single vowel, Proto-Terranilian-Azumanakan a.

The list below shows hypothesized phonological changes from Proto-Shazaqanic to Proto-Terranilian-Azumanakan to Proto-Terranilic.

  • The Satem shift, consisting of two sets of related changes. The PSQ palatals ḱ ǵ ǵʰ are fronted or affricated, eventually resulting in PTA ć ȷ́ ȷ́ʰ, while the PSQ labiovelars kʷ gʷ gʷʰ merge with the velars k g gʰ.
PSQ PTA PTN Sanskrit Avestan Latin English
ḱm̥tóm ćatám cʰetám śatám satəm centum 'hundred'
ǵónu ȷ́ā́nu jā́nu jā́nu zānu genū 'knee'
ǵʰimós ȷ́ʰimás jᵃimás himá ziiā̊ hiems 'winter' / 'snow'
kʷós kás kʰás kás ka quis 'who?, what?'
gʷṓws gā́wš gā́wš gaus gao bōs 'cow'
gʷʰormós armás gᵃarmás gharmás garəma formus 'warmth, heat'
  • The liquids l r merge as r .
PSQ PTA PTN Sanskrit Avestan Latin English
ḱléwos ćráwas cráwas śrávas srauua clueō 'fame, honour, word'
wĺ̥kʷos wŕ̥kas vrkas vŕ̥kas vəhrka lupus 'wolf'
  • The syllabic nasals merge with *a.
PSQ pre-PTA PTA PTN Sanskrit Avestan Latin English
déḱm̥ dáĉm̥ dáća déca dáśa dasā decem 'ten'
gʷm̥tós gm̥tás gatás getás gatá gata ventus 'come, gone'
n̥bʰrós n̥bʰrás abʰrás abrás abhrá aβra imber 'rain, cloud'
  • An aspirate immediately followed by a voiceless consonant becomes voiced stop + voiced aspirate. In addition, dʰ + t > dᶻdʰ.
PSQ PTA PTN Sanskrit Avestan English
ubʰtós ubdʰás ubtʰás sámubdha ubdaēna 'woven' / 'made of woven material'
wr̥dʰtós wr̥dᶻdʰás vrdtʰás vərəzda 'grown, mature'
dʰéwgʰti dáwgdʰi dáwgtʰi dógdhi *daogdi 'to milk'
  • s is retracted to š when immediately following a liquid (r r̥ l l̥), a high vowel (i u), a PTA velar (ḱ ǵ ǵʰ k g gʰ kʷ gʷ gʷʰ) or the syllabic laryngeal .
PSQ PTA PTN Sanskrit Avestan Latin English
wisós wišás vižás víṣas viša vīrus 'poison, venom'
ḱeHs- ćH̥šam cešam aśiṣam sīšā 'teach!'
ǵéwseti ȷ́áwšati jáwšati jóṣati zaošō gustus 'to like, taste'
kʷsép- kšáp- kšáp- kṣáp- xšap- 'darkness'
plúsis plúšiš plážiš plúṣi *fruši pūlex 'flea, noxious insect'
nisdós niždás niždás nīḷá/nīḍá *nižda nīdus 'nest'


  • Before a dental occlusive, ĉ becomes š and ĵ becomes ž. ĵʰ also becomes ž, with aspiration of the occlusive.
PSQ pre-PTA PTA PTN Sanskrit Avestan Latin English
h₁oḱtṓ Haĉtā́ Haštā́ haštā́ aṣṭá ašta octō 'eight'
dr̥ḱtós dr̥ĉtás dr̥štás drštás dr̥ṣṭá dərəšta 'seen, visible, apparent'
mr̥ǵt- mr̥ĵd- mr̥žd- mrdž- mr̥ḷ-/mr̥ḍ- mərəžd- 'to forgive, pardon'
uǵʰtós uĵdʰás uždʰás udžás ūḍhá *užda vector 'carried'
  • From PSQ to PTA, the sequence ĉš was simplified to šš.
PSQ pre-PTA PTA PTN Sanskrit Avestan Latin English
h₂éḱs- Háĉšas ššas hášas ákṣa aša axis 'axle, shoulder'
  • The "second palatalization": k g gʰ develop palatal allophones č ǰ ǰʰ before the front vowels i, e through an intermediate kʲ gʲ gʲʰ.
PSQ pre-PTA PTA PTN Sanskrit Avestan Latin English
-kʷe -kʲa -ča -ca -ca -ča -que 'and'
gʷih₃wós gʲiHwás ǰiHwás ji'wás jīvás juuō vīvus 'alive, living'
gʷʰénti gʲʰánti ǰʰánti jᵃánt hánti jaiṇti -fendit 'slays'
  • The vowels e o merge with a. Similarly, ē ō merge with ā.
PSQ PTA PTN Sanskrit Avestan Latin English
dédeh₃ti dádaHti déda't dádāti dadāiti dat 'to give'
h₃dónts Hdánts dants dant dantan dēns 'tooth'
bʰréh₂tēr bʰráHtā brá'tā bhrā́tr̥ brātar frāter 'brother'
wṓkʷs wā́kš}} wā́kš vā́k vāxš vōx 'voice'
  • In certain positions, laryngeals were vocalized to i.
  • Following a consonant, and preceding a consonant cluster:
PSQ PTA PTN Sanskrit Avestan Latin English
ph₂tréy pitráy pitráy pitré piθrē patrī 'father' (dative singular)
  • Following a consonant and word-final:
PSQ PTA PTN Sanskrit Avestan English
-medʰh₂ -madʰHi -madʰ -mahi -maidī/-maiδi (1st person plural middle ending)
  • The laryngeals all merged into one phoneme H, which may have been a glottal stop.
PSQ PTA PTN Sanskrit Avestan Latin English
ph₂tḗr pHtā́ petā́ pitā́ ptā pater 'father'
  • H disappeared when followed by a voiced nonaspirated stop and another consonant.
PSQ PTA PTN Sanskrit Avestan English
bʰéh₂geti áǰati bʰájat bhájati bažat̰ 'to divide, distribute'