Mutadinun Caliphate

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Mutadinun Caliphate

الخلافة المتدينة
632–664
Flag of Mutadinun
Flag
Mutadinun Map.png
Area ruled 660 (outdated)
CapitalMedina
Common languagesArabic and local languages
Religion
Islam
GovernmentImperial Republic
LegislatureMajlis as Shura
Historical eraEarly Islamic
• Election of Abu Bakr as first Caliph
632
635
• Mansur ibn Affan elected
645
• Ali ibn Abi Talib elected
659
• Second Shia Revolution 
664
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Romanyan Empire
Medina
Camecia
Zuhraid Caliphate
Camecia

The Mutadinun Caliphate (Arabic: الخلافة المتدينة) was the first caliphate to succeed Muhammad in 632 and took on further expansion after the unification of the Arabian tribes. The Caliphate gets its name from the Arabic word "المتدينة" meaning pious due the nature of the caliphs. They are recognized as the first four caliphs in Sunni Islamwhile in Shiya Islam they are not recognized at all.

The caliphate is characterized by its rapid expansion being the second largest Islamic state to have ever existed after the Zuhraid Caliphate. It took over much of Southeastern Ecros by 660.

Origins

After the prophet Muhammad's death in 632, Abu Bakr, one of Muhammad's companions, was elected Khalifat Rasul Allah (خَـلِـيْـفَـةُ رَسُـوْلِ اللهِ, "Successor of the Messenger of God") or caliph. Three other caliphs were elected following Abu Bakr. Sunni Muslims refer to these caliphs as the Mutadinun or "Pious" caliphs. However, this term is not used by Shiya Muslims as they generally do not consider the first three caliphs legitimate.

Caliphs

Abu Bakr

After the prophet Muhammad's death in 632, the people of Medina gathered to decide on a leader for the Muslim community. There was debate over the method of choosing the successor and who he should be. Although Abu Bakr nominated Abdul Qader ibn Rashed, the sahaba, or companions of Muhammad, including Abdul Qader nominated Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr was near-universally accepted as Caliph. However, Ali ibn Abi Talib initially refused to acknowledge his authority. Ali may have expected to be chosen Caliph himself since he was the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad. Six months later, Abu Bakr and Ali reconciliated and Ali recognized him.

Abu Bakr then united the Arabian tribes.

Abdul Qader

Abdul Qader is not known by very many, as the most famous thing he did was invade Bladium in 643.

Mansur

Mansur ibn Affan led the Caliphate in the invasion of Kagoria in 650. The Muslim forces conquered city after city moving north along the Caelean Coast. The Caliphate captured Sipaipa in 649 and Talmyra in 650, marking the capture of Alaia. This brought the native Aramean Pytabian Christians and Aramaic-speaking Jews under Muslim rule who were required to pay the jizya tax. The Caliphate then launched an unsuccessful invasion of Kavarda which lasted two years.

Protests in Medina erupted in 659 calling for the resignation of Mansur. After he refused, several protestors broke into his home and killed him.

Ali

Following Mansur's assassination, Muhammad's cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib was elected caliph.

Demands for revenge for the death of Mansur arose and more protests and rebellions erupted. Ali's forces attempted to suppress them and ended up executing thousands of seditionists. This led to more calls for revenge, mainly from Nadr ibn Zayd of the Zuhrah tribe and relative of Mansur. Nadr rallied his forces against Ali and won several battles. Ali's hold over the Caliphate began to fall. Ali was assassinated in 664. Nadr declared himseld the new Caliph and established the Zuhraid Caliphate.

Administration

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Architecture