Lyoan conflict (2020)

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Second Lyoan Civil War
Part of the Lyoan conflict and spillover of the Troubles and Creeperian Conflicts
Second Lyoan Civil War Map.jpg
Military situation on 19 June 2020:
Date12 March – 1 July 2020
(3 months, 2 weeks and 5 days)
Location
Result

Qonqordia Peace Accords

Belligerents
 Lyoa
Anti-Karimun forces:
FRENAMI–EDPL
FPLL (from April)
J5M
Anti-Terranilian forces:
DFST
HRM
Foreign state actors:
 Creeperopolis
 Sequoyah (April–May)
Karimun-aligned forces:
LRCC
Terranilian-aligned forces:
RLD
Anti-Creeperian forces:
Creeperopolis GPRCE
Mara Salvatrucha
Foreign state actors:
 Terranihil
 Karimun
 Morova (until April)[1]
Commanders and leaders
Lyoa Kemoh Foday
Lyoa Alexander Nyarashe
Lyoa Johnny Tyurahutse
Vincent Okalo
Óscar Yagüe Melléndez
Adolfo Majano Ramos
Mikel Therúnk
Creeperopolis Martín Elvira Abasto
Olivier Tamboa
August Yakata
Sammy Inikota
Patrice Yakurusha
Creeperopolis Antonio Gisbert Alcabú  Executed
Creeperopolis Andrés Andino Cazalla
Terranihil Zatšer Sral
Units involved

Lyoa Lyoa National Defense Force

Special Security Service
Creeperopolis Creeperian Army

Creeperopolis Creeperian Navy

Creeperopolis Creeperian Air Force

LRCC–Northern Front
LRCC–Eastern Front
RLD–North
RLD–South
Free Creeperian Armed Forces

Terranihil Terranilian Air Force
Terranihil Terranilian Army

Strength
Lyoa LNDF: 150,000+
Creeperopolis FAC: 3,500+
HRM: 300+
FRENAMI–EDPL: 2,000+
FPLL: 500+
J5M: ~2,000
DFST: ~50
Sequoyah SAA: 500
RLCC: 20,000+
RLD: 20,000+
Creeperopolis ELC: 2,000+
MS: Unknown
Terranihil DCT: ~500
Karimun ABNK: Unknown
Morova MAF: Unknown
Casualties and losses
Lyoa 638 killed
Creeperopolis 28 killed
52 killed
21 killed
9 killed
6 killed
45 killed
293 killed
475 killed
Creeperopolis 42 killed
MS 85 killed
Terranihil 21 killed
Karimun 1 killed
897+ civilians killed, 40,000+ displaced

The 2020 phase of the Lyoan conflict, also known as the second phase of the Lyoan conflict, and also commonly referred to as the Second Lyoan Civil War, was a major conflict in Lyoa fought between forces of the Lyoan government and two major Lyoan rebel groups: the Lyoan Revolutionary Command Council (LRCC) and the Rally for Lyoan Democracy (RLD). The conflict also saw major military interventions by both Creeperopolis and Terranihil in support of the government and the RLD, respectively.

The war followed the first phase of the Lyoan conflict (2003–2020), also known as the Lyoan Armed Conflict, and began after various rebel factions unified to more effectively resist the government. The rebel factions formed the LRCC and the RLD. The Lyoan government was supported by the nation of Creeperopolis, as well as various pro-government militias, including the Holy Resistance Movement (HRM), Army for the Defense of the People of Lyoa (FRENAMI–EDLP), the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Terranihil (DFST), the Patriotic Forces for the Liberation of Lyoa (PFLL), and the January 5th Movement (J5M). The LRCC received support from the nation of Karimun while the RLD received support from the nation of Terranihil. The self-declared Creeperian Government-in-Exile and Mara Salvatrucha gang also participated in the war in opposition to the Lyoan government.

During the conflict, the LRCC and LRD conducted various military offensives, capturing several cities, towns, and villages throughout the war, with the most notable offensive being Operation Tigera, an attempted direct assault on Tigera, the capital city of Lyoa, by a joint RLD–Terranilian force in early-April 2020. Clashes occurred nearly every day of the conflict between the government, its allied militias, and the rebel groups, usually inflicting minor casualties.

The conflict ended on 1 July 2020 with the signing of the Qonqordia Peace Accords in Greater Sacramento which led to the demobilization of various militias and rebel groups and allowed said militias and rebel groups to transform into political parties. Despite the peace, the end of the conflict began the third phase of the Lyoan conflict.

Background

Revolutionary United Front government

In 2002, during the Lyoan Civil War, the Revolutionary United Forces (RUF) took power in Lyoa, overthrowing the government of longtime-President Laurent Tulossa, who assumed power in the 1979 Lyoan coup d'état. Since then, Lyoa had been effectively dominated by the succeeding Revolutionary United Front (RUF) political party.

The political situation in Lyoa could be described as a "one-party dominant state," as other parties exist, but they had little chance of winning major office besides in the National Legislative Council (NLC), the national legislature of Lyoa. The dominance of RUF in Lyoan politics caused resentment among some Lyoans and motivated several rebel factions to form since the conclusion of the Lyoan Civil War.

Lyoan Armed Conflict

The Lyoan Armed Conflict was a low-level insurgency that immediately followed the Lyoan Civil War. It was caused by a number of factors, including poor standard of living, failure to demobilize former rebel units, and fighting for control over resources. Many of the rebel groups that participated in the Lyoan Armed Conflict were direct predecessors to the groups which formed in the Second Lyoan Civil War. The rebel groups were:

The Terranilian rebel group Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Terranihil (DSLT) was also alleged to have been provided equipment by and trained by the Special Security Service (SSS) of Lyoa. The group was led by Mikel Therúnk and the Lyoan government denied supporting the group.

The Battle of Nyabari saw the first significant Creeperian military presence in Lyoa.

Prior to the conflict, the Lyoa National Defense Force (LNDF), which was composed of the Lyoa National Army (LNA), Lyoa National Navy (LNN), and Lyoa National Air Force (LNAF) received significant support from the government of Creeperopolis. The government of Creeperopolis originally sent elements of the Creeperian Armed Forces (FAC) to support the government in the Battle of Nyabari of December 2019 to February 2020 between the Lyoan government and the NCLOF. Creeperian forces arrived in Nyabari on 26 January 2020.[2] The Creeperian forces in Nyabari were alleged to have committed the 2020 Nyabari chemical attack which occurred on 1 February 2020 which killed 105 people, including 68 civilians, however, no action was taken into investigating the gas attack.[3] Those units, notably the Black Division, remained in Lyoa, end after the conclusion of the battle. The Creeperian Armed Forces had made it a priority to defend mining concessions of the National Mining and Smelting Corporation (CORNAMIF) from occupation by rebel forces, and had stated it will "do whatever is necessary to keep the government of [President] Kemoh Foday in power."

On 11 January 2020, a group known as the Militarist Nationalist Front–Army for the Defense of the People of Lyoa (FRENAMI–EDPL) was formed by Óscar Yagüe Melléndez, who referred to himself as "Commandant Viper."[4] The group formed with the intentions of fighting against Lyoan rebel groups which had ties to the Creeperian gang Mara Salvatrucha and its fighters were recruited locally and were mainly of Creepero-Lyoan descent.[4]

Between 9 and 11 February 2020, a group known as the Free Creeperian Army and Revolutionary Government Junta for Creeperian Reorganization attempted a coup d'état in Creeperopolis.[5] The attempt, however, failed, and resulted in many participants fleeing the country.[6] On 19 February 2020, a group of around 1,200 soldiers and officers who escaped Creeperopolis declared the establishment of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Creeperopolis in Exile. The government-in-exile was lead by self-appointed President Antonio Gisbert Alcabú and Prime Minister Andrés Andino Cazalla. The government-in-exile claimed that it had the support and backing of the NCLOF.[7]

On 12 March 2020, the LNDF declared that the ARF had been entirely destroyed.[8]

Course of the conflict

March

On 12 March 2020, a faction of Tulossa loyalists and Altaia separatist groups declared the establishment of the Rally for Lyoan Democracy (RLD).[9] Later that same day, Tamboa released a video stating that the FLA, ALiR, ARL, NCLOF, LRM, and remaining SDM were merging together and forming a unified rebel group coalition: the Lyoan Revolutionary Command Council (LRCC).[10] Tamboa claimed that the group would "finally liberate Lyoa from an oppressive, undemocratic regime," and the LRCC occupied several villages in northern Lyoa.[10] The RLD also began attacking government positions in Altaia and Isiru and also captured several villages.[10]

That same day, FRENAMI–EDPL and the HRM voiced their support for the government in opposition to both the LRCC and RLD.[10] The Creeperian government voiced its support for the Lyoan government, offering weapons and direct military intervention in the conflict, and in opposition to the Creeperian declaration, the Creeperian Government-in-Exile announced its support for the LRCC.[11][12] Therúnk also made a statement stating that the DFST supports the Lyoan government against both the LRCC and RLD.[13]

On 13 March 2020, the LRCC began advancing on government positions in Kitungano, displacing thousands of civilians in the process, and the RLD captured several government transport vehicles in Altaia.[14] As a result, the Creeperian government offered to send the Lyoan government hundreds of army vehicles, including VEPRES 1 light halftracks, VEPRES 2 light halftrack motorcycles, VEPRES 3 medium halftracks, VEPRES 350 Kauayotl armored personnel carriers, and dozens of VEPRES 132 Cruzadore II heavy tanks.[15] Pro-RLD militias arose in the town of Bellaku, seizing control of the town for the RLD, meanwhile, clashes intensified between government and RLD forces in the Isiru.[16] An estimated 3,000 were displaced by the conflicts in southern Lyoa, and it was reported that Terranilian dissidents of the DFST were fighting alongside government forces in the province.[16] The RLD also began advancing on several towns in the province of Altaia.[16] The LRCC simultaneously began an advance on the town of Krusiki in Shalungu, and it was reported that government forces were collapsing in that area of Lyoa.[16]

On 14 March 2020, the Creeperian Government-in-Exile passed[note 1] a bill called A Motion to Request Membership in Aurebeshia which formally requested membership in Aurebeshia for the Creeperian Government-in-Exile, however, the request went ignored by Aurebeshia.[17]

On 15 March 2020, fighting erupted between pro-government forces and Tulossa loyalist forces of the RLD as the rebel forces rose up in the northern part of Abari.[18] Aircraft of the Lyoa National Air Force began bombing rebel positions in the area.[18] Forces loyal to the LRCC seized large portions of Kitungano, including the town of Josaru, and began advancing on the city of Kabule, the fifth largest city in Lyoa, which was already partially surrounded by the LRCC.[18] Krusiki fell to the LRCC after heavy fighting and the RLD occupied the town of Amelaka in Altaia.[18]

LRCC militants outside of Kabule before the Second Battle of Kabule, March 2020.

On 17 March 2020, the LNDF deployed the Anti-Terrorist Unit (ATU) to combat the RLD in Abari, while RLD forces in Altaia began to approach the city of Kalole, the capital of the province and the third largest city in Lyoa.[19] The government of Terranihil publicly applauded the successes of the RLD and supplied the rebel group with 1,200 Morovan Service Rifles and small Terranilian arms.[20] Forces of the LRCC also entered the northern part of the city of Kabule, beginning the Second Battle of Kabule.[19]

On 18 March 2020, a bomb exploded at the Torre Emperador Adolfo III in San Salvador, a gunman opened fire in a mall in Adolfosburg, a car bomb exploded outside the capitol building of Salvador, two car bombs exploded at shipping ports in Victoria, and a car bomb exploded outside of the capitol building of Ciudad Los'Ángeles.[21] The 18 March Attacks, which killed 86 people and injuring 98 more in Creeperopolis and El Salvador, were committed by the gang Mara Salvatrucha, which claimed responsibility for the attacks and declared that the attacks were committed in support of the LRCC.[21]

On 22 March 2020, the National Legislative Council voted unanimously to declare a state of emergency in provinces with rebel activity, which were Shalungu, Wateka, Kitungano, Kazima, Mitende, Altaia, and Isiru.[22] The city of Kabule also eventually fell to LRCC forces after nearly a week of battle.[22] Mass police and military defections were reported which increased rebel numbers significantly, resulting in a general retreat being ordered by the LNDF to prevent a "total annihilation" in the region.[22] The RLD also entered the city of Kalole, beginning the Battle of Kalole, while RLD forces in Abari advanced on the town of Makenita, resulting in large-scale fighting, and RLD forces in Isiru united with militias in Bellaku.[22] The LNAF began striking rebel positions in Isiru.[22] The LRCC began advancing on the town of Namoya, Shalungu, which contained a large diamond mine operated by the National Mining and Smelting Corporation (CORNAMIF), a Creeperian mining company.[22]

LNDF soldiers in Namoya before the Battle of Namoya, March 2020.

As a result of the rebel activity near the Namoya Mine, CORNAMIF lobbied the Creeperian government for assistance in protecting their mining concession.[23] The government responded by mobilizing the Black Division, which was still stationed in Nyabari, to march towards Namoya to protect the city and the mining concession.[23] The Black Division arrived on 25 March 2020 and reportedly boosted the morale of the Lyoan soldiers in the city.[24][25] The Creeperian government also offered the Lyoan government thousands of Figueroa-24 Tipo-2017 automatic assault rifles, Figueroa-33 Tipo-2013 light machine guns, and Figueroa 132 Tipo-2011 rocket propelled grenade launchers.[23] The Creeperian government also sent hundreds of Figueroa 203 Tipo-2014 submachine guns and Figueroa-818 Tipo-1979 shotguns to be distributed among the various Creeperian mining concessions in Lyoa for self-defense purposes.[23] Three additional VEPRES 131/2 Cruzadore II heavy tanks were also sent to the LNDF.[23]

On 27 March 2020, the Lyoan government accused the government of Terranihil of hiding Patrice Yakurusha, who served as Tulossa's Vice President from 1996 to 2002, and stated that they suspect that he has some ties to the RLD.[26] The Terranilian government rebuked the Lyoan claim, stating that Yakurusha was not in Terranihil.[27] Terranihil also demanded the extradition of Therúnk to Terranihil, however, the Lyoan government refused, citing that Terranihil was supporting Lyoan rebel groups that that Therúnk was not in Lyoa.[27][28]

FAC MB-23 fighter jets before bombing runs in the Battle of Namoya, March 2020.

That same day, the LNDF withdrew from Kalole, allowing the RLD to capture the city.[26] Sammy Inikota, the military commander of the RLD, gave a speech in the city, proclaiming that "a war of national liberation has just begun."[26] Soldiers of the RLD were also spotted using weapons which allegedly came from Morova.[26] The LNDF began a counter-attack to retake the RLD-held town of Amelaka, meanwhile, the RLD began attempting to capture the town of Makenita, which was defended by the ATU.[26] The RLD also began advancing towards Itheru, the seventh largest city in Lyoa.[26]

By the end of the day, the LRCC had complete control of the province of Kitungano.[26] Intense fighting began in Namoya as LRCC forces enter the eastern part of the town, beginning the Battle of Namoya.[26] The Black Division, commanded by Elvira Abasto, and Lyoan garrison of Namoya, commanded by Emile Sikatenda, defended the city against LRCC forces under John Gatanga.[26] The Getie Airbase began preparing an air wing of the LNAF to participate in the Battle of Namoya, which began engaging in coordinated strikes against LRCC ground forces on 29 March 2020.[26][29]

Government forces began attempting to retake the city of Amelaka from RLD control on 29 March 2020.[29] The RLD also began marching towards Itheru.[29] Militants of the DFST were reportedly fighting alongside the LNDF during the engagement.[29]

April

By 1 April 2020, most of the heavy fighting at the Namoya Mine had ceased, as LRCC forces focused their efforts on capturing Namoya itself.[30] The LRCC also began advancing on the town of Gbadolite in the province of Wateka, a mountainous settlement that former President Tulossa maintained a private residence in.[30] The RLD occupied the city of Makenita, however, the ATU had begun to recapture RLD-controlled territory in Abari.[30] In Altaia, the RLD executed several "suspected homosexuals" in the city of Kalole, and the group began advancing east towards the province of Mboko.[30] The RLD also began moving into the province of Isiru.[30]

Unloading of Terranilian weapons and supplies at Kalole International Airport, April 2020.

On 4 April 2020, the government of Terranihil directly assisted the RLD in executing Operation Tigera, a plan to capture Tigera, the national capital, and quickly end the war.[31] Five airliners, which originated from Kalole International Airport, landed at the Tigera Military Airport, carrying a total of 1,000 DOSTÉV Terranilian operatives and RLD fighters.[31] After being ordered to surrender, LNDF forces defending the airport eventually surrendered to the joint Terranilian–RLD force, with several LNDF personnel even defecting.[32] On 6 April 2020, after the base was secured, the Terranilian and RLD forces began marching on Tigera.[33] That same day, the Creeperian Army sent 1,000 soldiers on board four Maroto Botín MB-12-10 aircraft to the Tigera International Airport to intercept the joint Terranilian–RLD force threatening Tigera.[34] The Creeperian Navy also sent seven destroyers, four heavy cruisers, and seven submarines, guarding a convoy of 3,000 soldiers, to Tigera.[34][note 2]

RLD fighters during Operation Tigera, April 2020.

By 7 April 2020, the joint Terranilian and RLD force had captured the towns of Inguta, Narishi, and Bendera, including the three power plants located in those towns, which provided power to Tigera.[35] The rebels cut off all power to Tigera, leading to mass social unrest in the city.[35] Many civilians fled the city, while others began to protest against the government, with some even initiating riots in the city.[35] Some politicians have even considered ordering an evacuation of the city in preparation for an expected military engagement in the capital.[35] The Lyoan government officially closed the Tigera International Airport after the power was cut to the city.[35] As Creeperian reinforcements arrived, the Terranilian and RLD forces began a retreat from Tigera back to the Tigera Military Airport.[36] On 15 April 2020, the Terranilian and RLD soldiers flew out of Tigera Military Airport back for Kalole International Airport, ending Operation Tigera in defeat.[37]

On 16 April 2020, the government of Sequoyah sent 500 soldiers, commanded by Captain Augustus Young, to fight on behalf of the Lyoan government against the LRCC.[38] On 17 April 2020, the LRCC withdrew from Namoya, ending the battle in a government and Creeperian victory.[39] On 19 April 2020, the LRCC and Lyoan government clashed in Shalungu, and one of the killed militiamen of the LRCC was identified as a member of Mara Salvatrucha based on his ethnicity and body tattoos.[40] In Kazimia, the 500 Sequoyan soldiers began engaging with forces of the LRCC.[40] The RLD began bombarding government positions in Mboko as they begin their advance on the city, while in Isiru, RLD rebels struck government positions with mortars, and the LNDF returned mortar fire of their own.[40]

On 22 April 2020, government forces and the RLD clashed in Isiru, and several journalists, including Joseph Ngutu, reported that fighters of the DFST were fighting alongside government forces in DFST uniforms.[41] RLD rebel forces also began advancing towards the town of Lilikatu in Altaia after intense airstrikes from the Terranilian Air Force.[41] The HRM reportedly sent fighters to the area to fight against the advancing RLD and the Terranilian Army reportedly was also sending soldiers into the area, however, both reports were largely unconfirmed.[41] In Shalungu, the LRCC engaged in minor skirmishes with pro-government troops and FRENAMI–EDLP paramilitaries.[41] The LNAF also truck multiple front line rebel positions with bombs in Kazimia.[41] That same day, a new paramilitary group, known as the Patriotic Forces for the Liberation of Lyoa, formed in Nyabari and was composed mostly of Creepero-Lyoans.[42]

On 23 April 2020, the DFST announced that it had destroyed a machine gun post of the RLD with an ATGM rocket in Isiru.[43] The ATU also clashed with the RLD in Abari and the LRCC and FRENAMI–EDPL clashed in Shalungu.[43] The LNDF began artillery shelling of LRCC positions in Shalungu.[43]

May

On 1 May 2020, Fridolin Ambongo, the Creeperian Catholic Archbishop of Tigera, made a statement regarding Terranilian "Creeperianization" in the Second Lyoan Civil War:[44]

It is obvious what they intend to do. By supporting Samuel Inikota's rebellions, they are trying to [C]reeperianize our country and move in their own people to areas fled by civilians. We must be vigilant in ensuring the [C]reeperianization of Lyoa does not occur.

In April 2020, the government of Sequoyah legalized slavery, and after demands by several world governments for the government to revoke the law, the Lyoan government arrested the 500 Sequoyan soldiers serving in the country on 2 May 2020.[45]

On 3 May 2020, the Lyoa national football team hosted the Creeperopolis national team in the Tigera National Stadium for a friendly match which was referred to as the Battle of CODECO.[46] During the match's halftime at 12:48pm LNT (AMT–7), six gunmen armed with Creeperian-manufactured Figueroa-24 Tipo-1948 automatic assault rifles opened fire in the stadium's food court and in the stands.[46] The gunfire caused a mass panic with crowds of people rushing away from the gunmen.[46] Security immediately returned fire against the gunmen, and the Lyoa National Police Force (LNPF) responded as well.[46]

After twenty minutes of gunfire being exchanged, the six gunmen were killed.[46] In total, twenty-seven people, including the six gunmen, three security guards, one police officer, sixteen spectators, and one food vendor were killed.[46] Another sixty-four people, including six security guards, four policemen, forty-seven spectators, four food vendors, and three other stadium employees were injured.[46]

The match referees considered canceling the game at half time, however, many fans returned and insisted that the match continued. Under pressure from the spectators, and fearing spectators flooding the field and causing more violence, the referees and the players agreed to continue the match.[46] Halftime lasted one hour and seventeen minutes, instead of the usual fifteen minutes, and the match continued as if nothing had happened.[46] Throughout the second half of the match, the LNA was on standby outside of the stadium to prevent any further attacks.[46]

The SSS and National Intelligence Directorate (DINA), the intelligence agency of Creeperopolis, both launched a joint investigation into the attack.[46] The official report, released later that day, stated that the six gunmen were soldiers of the Free Creeperian Army.[46] The Free Creeperian Army denied involvement in the attack, instead, claiming that the attack was a false flag operation carried out by the Lyoan and Creeperian governments in order to frame the Free Creeperian Army and increase further attacks against the group.[46]

On 5 May 2020, the DFST released a video of them using an ATGM to destroy a technical belonging to the RLD in Isiru, and in the video, several Lyoan soldiers were seen assisting the Terranilian rebels.[47] Mara Salvatrucha claimed that it has killed two Lyoan soldiers in Mitende and the RLD shelled front line positions of the HRM for several hours in Altaia.[47] In Shalungu, FRENAMI–EDPL released a video of a raid against an LRCC front line position showing its members attacking a machine gun nest held by LRCC men.[47]

RLD soldiers during the early phases of Operation Valiant Struggle, May 2020.

On 16 May 2020, the RLD began Operation Valiant Struggle, a large-scale offensive targeting the towns Kamango, Bunagana, Minova, Lilikatu, and Masisi in Altaia.[48] Heavy clashes occurred in Lilikatu between RLD forces and joint government and HRM forces.[48] LNDF ground sources believed that the Terranilian Armed Forces were participating in the offensive as well.[48] The following day, the Terranilian Air Force began bombing LNDF positions in assistance of the RLD's offensive, killing several Lyoan soldiers and destroying many vehicles and fortifications.[49] The bombings forced the LNDF to abandon many of its positions, resulting in the RLD entering the town of Lilikatu.[49] Lilikatu fully fell to RLD forces on 20 May 2020, and then, the RLD began advancing on Minova.[50]

On 28 May 2020, the RLD began its assault on Minova, a major gold mining center.[51] The LRD also clashed with the DFSL in Isiru along the Itheru-Bellaku road, and in Abari, the LNDF and ATU began sieging the town of Makenita, the only town under LRD control in the province.[51] The LRCC began advancing on the town of Gbadolite, and in response, the LNAF began launching air strikes on the advancing LRCC to halt their advance.[51] The LRCC destroyed an observation post of FRENAMI–EDPL in Shalungu.[51] Alleged elements of the Free Creeperian Navy, a small Shalungu-based unit of the Free Creeperian Armed Forces, boarded a civilian boat and abducted the passengers, demanding a LY$10,000 ransom.[51]

On 30 May 2020, demonstrations occurred in Tigera protesting Terranilian involvement in the war, demanding that Terranihil withdraw its armed forces that were backing an "illegal insurgency."[52] Meanwhile, demonstrations occurred in Kalole protesting the RUF and the Lyoan government, demanding the resignation of Foday and the abolition of the RUF, and demonstrators in Syrina demanded the end of the RUF government and the "re-establishment of democracy."[52]

June

RLD soldiers with Terranilian provided weapons in Altaia, June 2020.

On 2 June 2020, Minova fell to RLD forces and the mine in the city was captured.[53] The LRD also destroyed an ammunition depot of the DFST in Isiru.[53] The LNDF marched into Makenita after the siege, capturing several RLD soldiers.[53] The LRCC and LNDF began clashing on the outskirts of Gbadolite.[53] The Free Creeperian Army clashed with Lyoan government forces and FRENAMI–EDPL paramilitaries.[53] Protests occurred in Kasimia against Terranilian and Karimunese involvement in the war.[53]

On 3 June 2020, the DFST announced that they would expand operations into Altaia to help fight against the Terranilian-backed RLD.[54] The LRCC and J5M clashed in Shalungu, LRCC forces continued to clash with LRCC forces in Gbadolite, and the LRCC destroyed a machine gun emplacement of the FPLL in Kazimia.[54] Mara Salvatrucha clashed with the Free Creeperian Army, a rare set of events between to anti-Creeperian groups.[54] The Terranilian Air Force bombed Masisi, damaging several fortifications of the LNDF and HRM, assisting the RLD's efforts in their offensive.[54]

By 4 June 2020, the LRCC had secured half of the town of Gbadolite.[55] The LRCC also clashed with the LNDF and J5M in Shalungu and came under attack from the PFLL in Kazimia.[55] The RLD fired mortars on government positions ins Isiru.[55] The LNAF also launched air strikes against several RLD positions in Altaia in an effort to slow down their offensive, and in response, the RLD fired mortar rounds and a government observation point.[55]

On 5 June 2020, government forces withdrew completely from Gbadolite, allowing it to fall into LRCC control.[56] In Shalungu, LRCC forces began advancing on the town of Erinasha and also began clashes with FRENAMI–EDPL.[56] The RLD began clashing with government forces in Isiru, beginning a new offensive: Operation Isiru Storm.[56] The RLD began attacking Masisi and was clashing with government and HRM forces.[56]

That same day, Secretary of Defense Alexander Nyarashe released a statement:[57]

The Lyoa National Defense Force will be engaging in major operations in Isiru province. The combined forces of the Lyoa National Army, Lyoa National Air Force, Lyoa National Navy, and the elite Anti-Terrorist Unit will attack what is known as the Rally for Lyoan Democracy–North. The illegal armed group will be destroyed and peace will be restored in Isiru province. Already, the combined LNDF forces are beginning their attacks, where we shall foil the rebels' so-called "Operation Isiru Storm" and eliminate all terrorism. Additionally, I would like to comment on recent developments regarding foreign intervention. We do have sufficient evidence that suggests the presence of the Karimun Armed Forces in territories occupied by the rebel group calling itself the "Lyoan Revolutionary Command Council". It is believed that a battalion-sized unit is present in rebel-controlled territories in Shalungu. They are believed to both be training and fighting alongside the LRCC rebels. It is currently unknown why the Karimun Federation is assisting the rebellion.

— Alexander Nyarashe, Secretary of Defense[57]

On 8 June 2020, fighting intensified in Isiru as both the RLD and government launched large-scale attacks against each other.[58] It was believed that the RLD was pushing towards the Itheru Military Airport.[58] In Altaia, the RLD had captured around twelve percent of Masisi, and in Shalungu, the LRCC and Lyoan government clashed, resulting in several casualties on both sides.[58]

On 10 June 2020, heavy fighting occurred in Shalungu between LRCC and government forces.[59] A LRCC patrol in Kitungano was ambushed by FPLL forces.[59] In Tigera, the government accused the RLD and LRCC of being involved in the production and sale of illegal narcotics, including opium and cocaine.[59] The RLD responded to these accusations by stating: "The only cartel in Lyoa is the RUF regime."[59] The LRCC did not respond directly to the allegations, but several commanders had previously denied the group's involvement in narcotics trade during interviews despite having connections to Mara Salvatrucha.[59] Clashes continued in Masisi as rebels increased their control of the town to around thirty-five percent.[59] That night, the LNN intercepted a shipment of cocaine believed to be heading to territory of the LRCC.[60] The navy found aboard a boat around 15 kilograms of cocaine.[60] The two operators of the boat, members of the Mara Salvatrucha criminal gang, were arrested, and Lyoa informed Creeperopolis of the capture, and has offered to extradite the Mara members, to which the Creeperian government accepted.[60] Nyarashe called out the rebels for their involvement in narcotics trade.[60]

On 13 June 2020, RLD forces entered the military and civilian airports of Itheru.[61] The town of Masisi was fully captured by RLD forces after the last government forces withdrew from the town.[61] The RLD then began advancing on the towns of Bunagana and Kamango.[61] Heavy fighting between government and LRCC forces continued in Shalungu, and during the fighting, the LRCC began attacking Erinasha.[61]

LNA soldiers during the beginning of Operation Unified Dignity, June 2020.

On 16 June 2020, the LNA announced the beginning of Operation Unified Dignity.[62] Nyarashe stated:[62]

Today we have launched Operation Unified Dignity, in which the combined forces of our great Lyoa National Army and valiant civilian heroes who picked up arms alongside us, namely the Army for the Defense of the People of Lyoa and the Patriotic Forces for the Liberation of Lyoa, will liberate the town of Josaru from rebel hands. The LRCC has maintained their oppressive control over this city for far too long, and the defense forces will free it from their grip.

— Alexander Nyarashe, Secretary of Defense[62]

The LNDF and the combined forces of the allied FRENAMI–EDPL and FPLL militias began assaults across the entire eastern front line.[62] Heavy fighting erupted across the front line between government forces and the LRCC's Eastern Front.[62] Fighting occurred all across the front, but was mainly centered around the town of Josaru.[62] LNDF and allied forces launched attack after attack on rebel strongholds and front line positions.[62] To support the troops on the front line, the LRCC sent forces that typically would be guarding important rebel-occupied settlements to assist the rebels fighting the offensive.[62] This included major troop movements away from towns and cities such as Syrina and Kabule.[62] This left some settlements largely unguarded, including the LRCC's headquarters in the town of Syrina.[62] LRCC general command believed it necessary to maintain their front line's integrity.[62] As midnight approached, the fighting continued, with the army moving in several artillery pieces to assist troops on advancing.[62] Fighting suddenly stopped at midnight as the LNDF ceased its attacks.[62]

Operation Banana captured GPRCE President-in-Exile Antonio Gisbert Alcabú.

On 17 June 2020 at 12:15 a.m., the DINA, the Black Division, and the SSS initiated Operation Banana, a decapitation strike operation to either capture or assassinate Gisbert Alcabú, the President of the Creeperian Government-in-Exile.[63] Three Maroto Botín MB-33 helicopters took off from Nyabari Military Airport and flew southeast to Syrina, the capital-in-exile of the Creeperian Government-in-Exile.[63] Each DINA and SSS agent reportedly were armed with machetes and all of the agents' weapons were silenced, however, exact details of their weapons were never declassified.[63] The operation was commanded and led by Major Leonardo Magrina Magrina.[63]

The journey from Nyabari to Syrina took thirty-six minutes, and when they arrived, the helicopters landed one mile away from Syrina in a clearing north of the city.[63] The forty-eight men march silently through the jungle towards Syrina and the fifteen minute walk was uneventful.[63] Exact details of the raid are unknown as they were never declassified, however, the agents reportedly killed "several" ELC and LRCC soldiers, while only sustaining four injuries.[63] During the raid, Gisbert Alcabú was arrested and brought back to Nyabari, where he was eventually transported back to Creeperopolis.[63] On 18 June 2020, Gisbert Alcabú was found guilty of 110 charges presented against him by both the Creeperian and Lyoan governments, and he was publicly executed by a firing squad of VEPRES 132/1 Cruzadore II heavy tanks in San Salvador during the annual military parade in celebration of the 2003 Creeperian coup d'état.[64][note 3]

After the conclusion of Operation Banana, Operation Unified Dignity ceased, as its true purpose was to distract the LRCC and to force them to move troops out of Syrina to allow for Operation Banana to occur.[65] During the operation, however, the LNDF was able to recover several villages and front line positions from the rebels, but not much ground was gained as that was not the intent of the offensive.[65] In Isiru, all 4,000 RLD soldiers managed to be airlifted out of the province with assistance of the Terranilian Air Force, however, some were left behind and engaged with LNDF forces.[65] LNDF forces also captured Bellaku.[65] The RLD continued its southern offensive and advances several miles to Kamango and Bunagana.[65] In Erinasha, fighting continued as LNDF control of the town fell to only seventeen percent.[65]

On 18 June 2020, the Free Creeperian Army claimed responsibility for an ATGM attack that destroyed an LNDF machine gun emplacement in Shalungu.[66] Off the coast of Isiru, the LNN seized a cocaine shipment belonging to Mara Salvatrucha.[66] A minor boat skirmish occurred before the operators of the cocaine boat surrendered to authorities.[66] One Mara member was killed in the skirmish, while 3 more were arrested.[66] The Lyoan government contacted the Creeperian government offering to extradite the captured gang members, which the Creeperian government accepted.[66]

On 19 June 2020, the LNDF declared the province of Isiru to be "rebel-free" as the last remaining RLD holdouts were killed or captured by the LNA.[67]

HRM militants burning homes during the Nkiru massacre, June 2020.

On 23 June 2020, the HRM made made an incursion into RLD-held territory towards the village of Nkiru.[68] HRM fighters proceeded to open fire on the villagers, killing at least thirteen people.[68] Afterwards, the fighters entered the village and attacked the villagers who remained with machetes.[68] Men, women, and children were butchered by HRM forces, who considered the villagers to be "RLD agents."[68] After the entire village was determined to be cleared, the HRM fighters burnt it to the ground.[68] It is estimated that thirty-five people were killed in the massacre.[68] The HRM denied any involvement in the Nkiru massacre and blamed the RLD for the attack.[68] The LNDF was reported to have gunned down three Nagata civilians who were escaping front line clashes in Shalungu, however, the LNDF denied any involvement in the attack.[68] In Kitungano, LRCC rebel forces reportedly accidentally targeted a civilian village with mortars, mistaking it for a front line position of the PFLL, killing eight civilians.[68] An RLD fighter shot and killed a shopkeeper after the two had a minor disagreement about payment in Kalole.[68] Clashes occurred between the LNDF and LRCC along the front line in Kazimia.[68]

On 26 June 2020, a video was released which officially confirmed that Yakurusha had connections and ties with the RLD and that he had returned to Lyoa.[69] The LNAF struck a building in a jungle clearing that was believed to be a weapons cache used by members Mara Salvatrucha in Shalungu.[70] The LNAF claimed to have destroyed the entire building.[70]

On 27 June 2020, the Creeperian Government-in-Exile collapse due to internal conflicts over leadership and the individual political parties effectively began their own militia groups.[71] The LNAF claimed to have destroyed the entire building.[70] Andino Cazalla, who succeeded Gisbert Alcabú as President, fled and sought asylum in Terranihil, which was granted.[70]

Qonqordia Peace Accords

In late-June 2020, the government of Greater Sacramento offered to hold peace talks in the city of Qonqordia to bring an end to the conflict.[72] On 27 June 2020, the Lyoan government, HRM, and FRENAMI–EDPL agreed to participate in the peace talks.[72] The government of Karimun followed and voiced support for peace talks, which was followed by the PFLL.[73][74] The Creeperian government then also voiced its support for a peace conference.[75] The Terranilian government and RLD also expressed support for peace talks.[76] The remnants of the Free Creeperian Army loyal to Andino Cazalla, however, refused to partake in any peace talks.[77] In Qonqordia, security measures were taken to ensure the safety of the delegates which were expected to arrive to partake in the peace talks.[78]

On 29 June 2020, the Lyoan government, allied militias, LRCC, and RLD agreed to declare a ceasefire until the conclusion of peace talks.[79] The opposing forces stated their hope to stop the violence and allow the displaced to return to their homes.[79]

On 1 July 2020, delegations from the various armed factions and nations participating in the conflict met in Qonqordia to discuss an end to the conflict.[80] The Lyoan delegate opened up the discussions, laying out the demands of the Lyoan government to everyone involved.[80] Lyoa's government requested that all hostile foreign forces withdraw from the country, as well as all nations end support for anti-government rebel groups.[80] The government also requested that the rebel factions RLD and LRCC lay down their arms.[80] The government offered the rebels the opportunity to integrate into the LNA if they so chose, as well as form political parties.[80] The armed movements agreed to the offer and the government also offered pro-government groups the same opportunity, to which they also agreed to.[80]

Next, the Creeperian delegate stated his country's demands.[80] Creeperopolis stated that they agreed with all of the demands of Lyoa's government, while additionally requesting that the Terranilian government extradite Andino Cazalla, an opposition politician considered to be a criminal.[80] Creeperopolis offered the extradition of DFST leader Therúnk in exchange for this.[80] Lyoa's delegate also agreed to this exchange offer.[80] Terranihil agreed, then proceeded with their demands.[80] Alongside the extradition of Therúnk, Terranihil requested that Lyoa cease all support for the DFST rebel movement.[80] Lyoa's delegate agreed, and promised that the DFST's Lyoan Front would be eliminated by Lyoan security forces following the signing of the treaty.[80] The Karimunese government, Lyoan government, and January 5th Movement agreed to terms which required both nations to cease support of rebels in each other's nations, and allowed the January 5th Movement to demobilize and become a legal political party in Karimun.[80]

One final concession was given to rebel forces: the 2021 Lyoan presidential election was modified to include elections for the National Legislative Council.[80] Therefore, the 2021 Lyoan presidential election was scheduled to be a general election.[80] The treaty, the Qonqordia Peace Accords was signed by all parties at the conference, and the war was officially over.[80]

Aftermath

Demobilizations and extraditions

After the peace conference concluded, most of the pro-government militias began the process of demobilization, including the HRM, FRENAMI–EDPL, and the PFLL.[81] Each group established their own political part following their demobilization: the HRM formed the Holy Resistance Party (HRP), FRENAMI–EDPL formed the People's Defense Organization (PDO), and the PFLL formed the Lyoan Liberators Party (LLP).[81]

The DFST, however, refused to demobilize and came into conflict with the Lyoan government, which they had supported during the war.[82] A shootout took place between LNPF and members of the DFST in Itheru on 2 July 2020.[82] Police involved in the search for the group's fugitive leader were ambushed by the rebels, and a gunfight occurred.[82] Fighting lasted around fifteen minutes.[82] The LNPF reported that one of its officers was injured in the shootout, but is expected to recover, and the LNPF then called upon the remaining DFST fighters to lay down their arms in accordance with the peace deal.[82] The Chief of Police of Ithiru, Cyprien Habikara, made a statement to the DFST stating: "The war here is over, the DFST should disarm or leave our country."[82] Therúnk was eventually captured on 4 July 2020 by the LNPF and ATU in Abari.[83] He was handed over to Terranilian custody and he was eventually executed on 9 July 2020 in Terranihil.[83][84][note 4]

Lyoan intelligence suggested that the military-led faction of the former Creeperian Government-in-Exile were attempting to relocate to Karimun after the government had collapsed.[85] Lyoa believed that this group was attempting to enter a less hostile country to continue its terrorist activities.[85] On 4 July 2020, Andino Cazalla was arrested by the Terranilian government and handed over to Creeperian custody, and he was eventually executed on 7 July 2020.[86][87][88]

In Qonqordia, Mayor Zeeshan Freeman invited Lyoans from across Greater Sacramento to visit the city and to celebrate the conclusion of the conflict.[89] A Lyoan cultural event was held and Lyoan musical artists such as Lizzo, a very popular Nasheed singer and Lyoan cultural music performer, preformed at the event.[89]

Subsequent conflict

On 5 July 2020, Lyoan National Airlines Flight 283, a Maroto Botín MB-8-80 of Lyoan National Airlines, was hijacked after takeoff from New Bostonia International Airport by four men armed with Figueroa 203 Tipo-2014 submachine guns.[90] The flight, on orders of the hijackers, landed at Tigera International Airport instead of William Ntihura International Airport.[90] The plane landed 41 minutes after being hijacked and one of the hijackers issued a radio message, declaring themselves to be the National Freedom Front.[90] They demanded the release of captured ex-ELC fighter Mariano Roberto López Laugerud, the abolition of capitalism in Lyoa, the establishment of a Lyoan workers' republic, and the resignation of the entire government, stating that one hostage would be killed every twenty minutes that their demands were not met.[90]

The hijackers shot and killed a flight stewardess after the first twenty minutes and threw her body out of the plane.[91] Agents of the ATU and SSS arrived at the airport and prepared a raid to end the hijacking.[91] Two squads of SSS agents moved air stairs to opposite ends of the aircraft and breached the left rear and right front doors of the aircraft.[91] During the raid, all four hijackers were killed.[91] In total, to civilians and all four hijackers were killed.[91] The hijacking event is generally considered to be the beginning of the third phase of the Lyoan conflict.[91]

Subsequent elections

As a part of the Qonqordia Peace Accords, both presidential and legislative elections were held in Lyoa in 2021, with the presidential election occurring in January and the legislative election occurring in February.[80] In the presidential elections, eleven candidates ran:[92]

Nyarashe and the Revolutionary United Front won the presidential election with 7,274,512 votes, or 63.29 percent of the total vote.[92] The election was considered to be fraudulent according to some opposition parties and by various rebel groups.[93] He was inaugurated as the 7th President of Lyoa and the 4th President from the RUF on 1 February 2021.[92][93]

That same day, the legislative election was held, and ten parties one at least one seat. The Revolutionary United Front won 202 seats, a slim majority in the NLC and an increase of two seats from the election prior. Every party, except the RUF and three new parties,[note 5] lost seats during the election.

Casualties

During the war, casualties were light among the factions during engagements. In total, 799 government and pro-government soldiers were killed, including 638 LNDF soldiers, 28 FAC soldiers, 52 FRENAMI–EDPL soldiers, 21 FPLL soldiers, 9 J5M soldiers, 6 DFST soldiers, and 45 HRM soldiers. In total, 917 anti-government soldiers were killed, including 293 LRCC soldiers, 475 RLD soldiers, 42 ELC soldiers, 85 members of Mara Salvatrucha, 21 Terranilian soldiers, and 1 Karimunese soldier. In total, 1,716 military personnel were killed during the war.

Civilian deaths were lower than military deaths, however, 897 civilians were still killed. Statistically, one civilian died for every two military fatalities. Tens of thousands of civilians were also internally displaced as a direct consequence of the war. An estimated 40,000 civilians were displaced and were forced to flee combat zones throughout the war. On some occasions, civilians were directly targeted by groups and massacred, with the most notable massacres being the Tigera National Stadium massacre, committed by the Free Creeperian Army, where 27 civilians were killed, and the Nkiru massacre, committed by the HRM, where 35 civilians were killed.[46][68]

Disease

On 16 June 2020, the National Department of Health (NDH) released a report regarding infectious diseases which described rising cases in several diseases, including the Shalungu Mountain Fever, Altaiavirus, and Novumi eraxus.[94] The NDH noted an increase in reported cases of tick-borne diseases, and attributes the rise in cases due to the increased displacement of civilians due to the war.[94] The Shalungu Mountain Fever, a tick-borne disease caused by R. naurii bacteria, was reported in 400 people, many of whom were civilian refugees who fled to the bush from violence.[94] The NDH also noted the increase in Altaiavirus, another tick-borne disease as result of similar circumstances.[94] A minor outbreak of the Novumi eraxus bacteria began in Wateka province, also traced to the results of fighting.[94] The NDH concluded the report with stating their intent to contain and treat the cases.[94]

See also

Flag of Creeperopolis.jpg Creeperopolis portal
TCNFlagNew.png Terraconserva portal

Notes

  1. A Motion to Request Membership in Aurebeshia passed by a margin of 26–24 in the House of Councilors and by a margin of 6–4 in the House of Senators. House of Councilors vote: 0–24 MPC, 17–0 MRR, 5–0 ARENA, 3–0 PPP, 1–0 PPPC; House of Senators vote: 0–4 MPC, 2–0 MRR, 2–0 ARENA, 1–0 PPP, 1–0, CPPP.
  2. The 18 warships Creeperopolis sent to escort the convoy of 3,000 soldiers were returning from participating in the Battle of the Glaceis Ocean against Morova on 30–31 March 2020.
  3. Gisbert Alcabú was publicly executed in Creeperopolis, despite being in violation of TCN Resolution 010 which outlawed such public executions, however, no action was taken against the violation of international law.
  4. Therúnk was publicly hanged in Terranihil, despite being in violation of TCN Resolution 010 which outlawed such public executions, however, no action was taken against the violation of international law.
  5. The three new parties in the 2021 legislative election were the Free Lyoan Alliance (FLA), People's Defense Organization (PDO), and Holy Resistance Party (HRP).

References

Citations

  1. "מאָלדאָוואַ שיקט 1,200 מאָלדאַוויאַן סערוויס ריפלעס צו טערראַניהיל צו שטיצן ר לד" [Morova Sends 1,200 Morvan Service Rifles to Terranihil to Support RLD] (in Morovan). 15 March 2020. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  2. Ngutu, Joseph (26 January 2020). "Creeperopolis Sends Soldiers and Aircraft to Nyabari". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 8 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  3. Ngutu, Joseph (1 February 2020). "Gas Attack in Nyabari! 105 Dead, 68 Were Civilians; Creeperian Air Force Alleged to have Committed the Attack; Denied by FAC". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 8 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  4. 4.0 4.1 Ngutu, Joseph (11 January 2020). "FRENAMI–EDPL Forms in Lyoa: Connections to Creeperian FRENAMI?". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 8 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  5. Franco Rodríguez, Carlos (9 February 2020). "Gaceta Creeperiano – Intento de Golpe de Estado Pasando en Creeperopólis" [Gaceta Creeperiano – Attempted Coup d'État Occurring in Creeperopolis]. gacetacreeperiano.org.cr (in Creeperian Spanish). Gaceta Creeperiano. p. 1. Retrieved 8 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  6. Franco Rodríguez, Carlos (13 February 2020). "Gaceta Creeperiano – Participantes enel Intento Golpe de Estado Mandado'l Muerte" [Gaceta Creeperiano – Participants in Attempted Coup d'État Sentenced to Death]. gacetacreeperiano.org.cr (in Creeperian Spanish). Gaceta Creeperiano. p. 1. Retrieved 8 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  7. Franco Rodríguez, Carlos (19 February 2020). "Gaceta Creeperiano – Exilios del Intento Golpe de Estado Declarán un "Gobierno-en-Exilio"" [Gaceta Creeperiano – Exiles of the Attempted Coup d'État Declare a "Government-in-Exile"]. gacetacreeperiano.org.cr (in Creeperian Spanish). Gaceta Creeperiano. p. 1. Retrieved 8 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  8. "Allied Republican Forces Destroyed by LNDF" (in Lyoan). Lyoa National Defense Force. 12 March 2020. p. 1. Retrieved 8 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  9. Ngutu, Joseph (12 March 2020). "New Coalition Group, Rally for Lyoan Democracy, Formed in Southern Lyoa". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 8 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 Ngutu, Joseph (12 March 2020). "New Coalition Group, Lyoan Revolutionary Command Council, Formed in Northern Lyoa; Rally for Lyoan Democracy Attacking Government Positions". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 8 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  11. Franco Rodríguez, Carlos (12 March 2020). "Gaceta Creeperiano – Creeperopólis Dice que Apoya'l Gobierno de Loyoa" [Gaceta Creeperiano – Creeperopolis Says it Supports the Lyoan Government]. gacetacreeperiano.org.cr (in Creeperian Spanish). Gaceta Creeperiano. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  12. Gisbert Alcabú, Antonio (12 March 2020). "Anunciamos Nuestro Apoyo del GPRCE al LRCC" [We Announce Our Support from the GPRCE to the LRCC] (in Creeperian Spanish). Creeperian Government-in-Exile. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  13. Therúnk, Mikel (12 March 2020). "DFST, Lyoan Hükümetine Desteğini Açıkladı" [DFST Declares Support for Lyoan Government] (in Terranilian). p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  14. Ngutu, Joseph (13 March 2020). "LRCC Advances in Kitungano; RLD Captures Transports". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  15. Ngutu, Joseph (13 March 2020). "Creeperopolis to Support Government with "Hundreds" of VEPRES Military Vehicles and Tanks". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 Ngutu, Joseph (13 March 2020). "RLD and Government Clashes in Isiru; LRCC Advances in Shalungu". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  17. Gisbert Alcabú, Antonio (14 March 2020). "Un Movimiento para'Solicitar Afiliación a Aurebeshia" [A Motion to Request Membership in Aurebeshia] (in Creeperian Spanish). Creeperian Government-in-Exile. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 Ngutu, Joseph (15 March 2020). "Fighting in Abari, Kitungano, Shalungu, and Altaia". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  19. 19.0 19.1 Ngutu, Joseph (17 March 2020). "ATU Deployed; Second Battle of Kabule Begins". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  20. Ngutu, Joseph (17 March 2020). "Terranihil Openly Applauds RLD; Terranilian Military Intervention Imminent?". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  21. 21.0 21.1 Franco Rodríguez, Carlos (18 March 2020). "Gaceta Creeperiano – Ataques de 18 Marzo Comitido por'Mara Salvatrucha en Apoyo del LRCC en Loyoa; 86 Muerto" [Gaceta Creeperiano – 18 March Attacks Committed by Mara Salvatrucha in Support of the LRCC in Lyoa; 86 Dead]. gacetacreeperiano.org.cr (in Creeperian Spanish). Gaceta Creeperiano. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5 Ngutu, Joseph (22 March 2020). "NLC Declares State of Emergency in Seven Provinces; More News on the Ongoing Conflict, So-Called "Second Lyoan Civil War"". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 Ngutu, Joseph (22 March 2020). "Black Division Deployed to Protect Mine in Namoya; Direct Creeperian Military Intervention Likely". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  24. Ngutu, Joseph (25 March 2020). "Black Division Arrives in Namoya; Battle Immanent". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  25. Ngutu, Joseph (25 March 2020). "Exclusive: Lyoan Troops in Namoya Report Higher Morale Thanks to Creeperian Presence, the "Heroes of Nyabari"". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 26.3 26.4 26.5 26.6 26.7 26.8 26.9 Ngutu, Joseph (27 March 2020). "Terranihil Accused of Hiding Yakurusha; And More News About the Second Lyoan Civil War". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  27. 27.0 27.1 Ngutu, Joseph (27 March 2020). "Terranihil Denies Accusations of Hiding Yakurusha; Demands Extradition of Therúnk". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  28. Ngutu, Joseph (27 March 2020). "Therúnk Not in Lyoa, Says Lyoan Government". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 Ngutu, Joseph (29 March 2020). "Actions of the Conflict – 29 March 2020". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 30.3 30.4 Ngutu, Joseph (1 April 2020). "Actions of the Conflict – 1 April 2020". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  31. 31.0 31.1 Ngutu, Joseph (4 April 2020). "Joint RLD–Terranilian Invasion of Tigera Military Airport; Capital Under Threat!". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  32. Ngutu, Joseph (4 April 2020). "LNDF at TMA Surrender; Many Defect". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  33. Ngutu, Joseph (6 April 2020). "The March on Tigera Begins; Government Close to Collapse". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  34. 34.0 34.1 Ngutu, Joseph (6 April 2020). "Creeperopolis Sends 4 Planes, 18 Warships–4,000 Soldiers–to TIA to Stop March on Tigera". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 35.3 35.4 Ngutu, Joseph (7 April 2020). "Rebels Cut of Power to Tigera; Mass Unrest; Government Collapse Immanent". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  36. Ngutu, Joseph (10 April 2020). "Creeperian Reinforcements Push Back Terranilian and RLD Invasion Force; Tigera is Saved". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  37. Ngutu, Joseph (15 April 2020). "RLD and Terranilians Retreat Back to Kalole; Tigera is Saved; the Government Survives". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  38. Ngutu, Joseph (16 April 2020). "Sequoyah Send 500 Soldiers to Assist Lyoan Government". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  39. Ngutu, Joseph (17 April 2020). "Battle of Namoya Ends; Creeperian Mine Defended". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  40. 40.0 40.1 40.2 Ngutu, Joseph (19 April 2020). "Actions of 19 April 2020". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  41. 41.0 41.1 41.2 41.3 41.4 Ngutu, Joseph (22 April 2020). "Actions of 22 April 2020". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  42. Ngutu, Joseph (22 April 2020). "New Paramilitary Group, PFLL, Forms". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 Ngutu, Joseph (23 April 2020). "Actions of 23 April 2020". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  44. 44.0 44.1 Ambongo, Fridolin (1 May 2020). "In Regards of Terranilian Creeperianization of Lyoa". archdiotigera.org.ly (in Lyoan). Archdiocese of Tigera. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  45. Ngutu, Joseph (2 May 2020). "Arrest of Sequoyan Armed Contingent in Lyoa". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  46. 46.00 46.01 46.02 46.03 46.04 46.05 46.06 46.07 46.08 46.09 46.10 46.11 46.12 46.13 "Battle of CODECO; Massacre of Tigera National Stadium" (in Lyoan). Terraconservan Cup. 3 May 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  47. 47.0 47.1 47.2 Ngutu, Joseph (5 May 2020). "Actions of 5 May 2020". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
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  49. 49.0 49.1 Ngutu, Joseph (17 May 2020). "Day Two of the RLD's Operation Valiant Struggle". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  50. Ngutu, Joseph (20 May 2020). "Lilikatu Falls to the RLD; RLD's Offensive Looks Unstoppable". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  51. 51.0 51.1 51.2 51.3 51.4 Ngutu, Joseph (28 May 2020). "Actions of 28 May 2020". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  52. 52.0 52.1 Ngutu, Joseph (30 May 2020). "Actions of 30 May 2020". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  53. 53.0 53.1 53.2 53.3 53.4 53.5 Ngutu, Joseph (2 June 2020). "Actions of 2 June 2020". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  54. 54.0 54.1 54.2 54.3 Ngutu, Joseph (3 June 2020). "Actions of 3 June 2020". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
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  56. 56.0 56.1 56.2 56.3 Ngutu, Joseph (5 June 2020). "Actions of 5 June 2020". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  57. 57.0 57.1 Nyarashe, Alexander (5 June 2020). "A Statement on the Current Affairs of the War". lndf.gov.ly (in Lyoan). Lyoa National Defense Force. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
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  59. 59.0 59.1 59.2 59.3 59.4 59.5 Ngutu, Joseph (10 June 2020). "Actions of 10 June 2020". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  60. 60.0 60.1 60.2 60.3 Ngutu, Joseph (10 June 2020). "Drug Smugglers Captured by the LNN North of Shalungu". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  61. 61.0 61.1 61.2 61.3 Ngutu, Joseph (13 June 2020). "Actions of 13 June 2020". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  62. 62.00 62.01 62.02 62.03 62.04 62.05 62.06 62.07 62.08 62.09 62.10 62.11 62.12 Ngutu, Joseph (16 June 2020). "Lyoan Declares the Beginning of Operation Unified Dignity". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  63. 63.0 63.1 63.2 63.3 63.4 63.5 63.6 63.7 Cabañeras Gutiérrez, Augusto (17 June 2020). "DINA – Operación Banana (Versión Declasificado)" [DINA – Operation Banana (Declassified Version)]. dina.gob.cr (in Creeperian Spanish). National Intelligence Directorate. pp. 1–2. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  64. Franco Rodríguez, Carlos (18 June 2020). "Gaceta Creeperiano – Ex-Presidente de Exilio Gisbert Alcabú Fusilado por'Cruzadore II Tanques en San Salvador" [Gaceta Creeperiano – Ex-President in Exile Gisbert Alcabú Executed by Cruzadore II Tanks in San Salvador]. gacetacreeperiano.org.cr (in Creeperian Spanish). Gaceta Creeperiano. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
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  66. 66.0 66.1 66.2 66.3 66.4 Ngutu, Joseph (18 June 2020). "Actions of 18 June 2020". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  67. Ngutu, Joseph (19 June 2020). "Actions of 19 June 2020". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  68. 68.00 68.01 68.02 68.03 68.04 68.05 68.06 68.07 68.08 68.09 68.10 68.11 Ngutu, Joseph (23 June 2020). "Massacres of 23 June 2020". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  69. Ngutu, Joseph (26 June 2020). "Patrice Yakurusha Returns; Confirmed to have Connections with the RLD". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
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  71. Ngutu, Joseph (27 June 2020). "GPRCE Collapses; Internal Leadership Crisis due to Operation Banana Primary Reason". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  72. 72.0 72.1 Ngutu, Joseph (27 June 2020). "Step to Peace! Lyoan Government, HRM, FRENAMI–EDPL Support Peace Talks". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  73. Ngutu, Joseph (27 June 2020). "Another Step to Peace! Karimunese Government Supports Peace Talks". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  74. Ngutu, Joseph (27 June 2020). "Yet Another Step to Peace! PFLL Supports Peace Talks". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  75. Ngutu, Joseph (27 June 2020). "And Yet Another Step to Peace! Creeperian Government Supports Peace Talks". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  76. Ngutu, Joseph (27 June 2020). "More Steps to Peace! Terranilian Government and RLD Support Peace Talks". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  77. Ngutu, Joseph (27 June 2020). "ELC Rejects Peace Talks!". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  78. Aziz, Ahmed (27 June 2020). "تزايد الإجراءات الأمنية في كونكورديا تحسبا لمحادثات السلام" [Security Measures Increased in Qonqordia in Anticipation of Peace Talks]. qonqordiatimes.org.ir (in Arabic). Qonqordia Times. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  79. 79.0 79.1 Ngutu, Joseph (29 June 2020). "Peace Around the Corner: Cease Fire Declared!". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
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  81. 81.0 81.1 Ngutu, Joseph (1 July 2020). "Pro-Government Militias Begin Process of Demobilization Post-Civil War". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  82. 82.0 82.1 82.2 82.3 82.4 82.5 Ngutu, Joseph (2 July 2020). "The DFST and Lyoan Government Clash in Isiru". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 10 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  83. 83.0 83.1 Ngutu, Joseph (4 July 2020). "Therúnk Captured! Extradited to Terranihil". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 10 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  84. "Therúnk, Terranihil'de Halka Açık Olarak İdam Edildi" [Therúnk Executed Publicly in Terranihil]. gursaunreport.org.tr (in Terranilian). Guršaun Report. 9 July 2020. p. 1. Retrieved 10 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  85. 85.0 85.1 Ngutu, Joseph (3 July 2020). "Left-Wing Remnants of GPRCE Alleged to be Fleeing to Karimun". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 10 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  86. Ngutu, Joseph (4 July 2020). "Andino Cazalla Arrested by Terranihil". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 10 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  87. Ngutu, Joseph (4 July 2020). "Andino Cazalla Extradited to Creeperopolis". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 10 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  88. Franco Rodríguez, Carlos (7 July 2020). "Gaceta Creeperiano – Andino Cazalla Ejecutado por'el Gobierno Creeperiano" [Gaceta Creeperiano – Andino Cazalla Executed by the Creeperian Government]. gacetacreeperiano.org.cr (in Creeperian Spanish). Gaceta Creeperiano. p. 1. Retrieved 10 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  89. 89.0 89.1 al-Ahmed, Muhammad (5 July 2020). "احتفال ليوان الثقافي في كونكورديا احتفالاً بنهاية الحرب" [Lyoan Cultural Celebration in Qonqordia in Celebration of the End of the War]. qonqordiatimes.org.ir (in Arabic). Qonqordia Times. p. 1. Retrieved 10 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  90. 90.0 90.1 90.2 90.3 Ngutu, Joseph (5 July 2020). "Airline Hijacking! LNA 283 from NBIA Hijacked Mid-Flight by Unknown Group". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 10 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  91. 91.0 91.1 91.2 91.3 91.4 91.5 Ngutu, Joseph (5 July 2020). "ATU and SSS Raid Hijacked Aircraft". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 10 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  92. 92.0 92.1 92.2 Ngutu, Joseph (12 January 2021). "Secretary of Defense Alexander Nyarashe Wins the Presidency!". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 10 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  93. 93.0 93.1 Ngutu, Joseph (1 February 2021). "Alexander Nyarashe Inaugurated as 7th President of Lyoa". tigera1news.org.ly (in Lyoan). Tigera 1 News. p. 1. Retrieved 10 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  94. 94.0 94.1 94.2 94.3 94.4 94.5 "National Department of Health Report Regarding the Spread of Diseases as a Result of the Conflict". ndh.gov.ly (in Lyoan). National Department of Health. 16 June 2020. p. 1. Retrieved 9 August 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)

Sources

Further reading

External links

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