Federation of Karimun
'Motto: " Bhinneka Tunggal Ika "
"Unity in Diversity"
Anthem: '"Karimun Raya"
|Official languages||Bahasa Karimun|
|Government||Federal Presidential Multi-party Republic|
• Vice President
|12 January- 27 August 1352|
|28 August 1352|
|1,412,428 sq mi (3,658,170 km2) (11th)|
• Water (%)
• 2020 estimate
|24.17/sq mi (9.3/km2) (10th)|
|GDP (nominal)||2020 estimate|
|1.6 trillion QSC/ ₭ 1,6 KPT (16th)|
• Per capita
|QSC 30,433 / ₭ 30,433,000 KPT (14th)|
|Gini (2020)|| 17.8|
|HDI (2020)|| 0.810|
very high · 16th
|Currency||Karimunese Peta (KPT)|
|Time zone||AMT-7, -8 (Karimun Timezones)|
Karimun, officially the Federation of Karimun or Karimun Federation (Bahasa Karimun: Federasi Karimun Jawa) is a country on the North-West part of Terraconserva landmass, It shares its land border with the Lyoa to the south, Groffenord to the north, and borders several bodies of water to the west. Karimun's capital is Giovanni, which is also its fourth largest city. Notable cities include Jogyakarta, Johenavi, and Patravan. As of 2020, Karimun has a population of 54.7 million.
The sovereign state is a presidential, constitutional federation with an elected legislature. It has 20 divisions, of which 7 have a federal city status while the rest are federal states. Despite its fairly large population and densely populated regions, Karimun has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, coal, tin, copper, gold, and nickel, while agriculture mainly produces rice, palm oil, tea, coffee, cacao, medicinal plants, spices, and rubber. The official currency of Karimun is been the Karimunese Peta.
Karimun consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest —and politically dominant— ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within an atheist-majority population, and a history of peace and war against it. Karimun's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Unity in Diversity" literally, "many, yet one"), articulates the diversity that shapes the country.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Government & Politics
- 6 Economy
- 7 Culture
People used to belive that Karimun derived from the old language of Javanese Sanskrit (Kremur-kremur) meaning "escape" or "fight later". people said that the country was the place for the escapee, refugees, and dreamers to finally settled themselves but according to scholars, Karimun comes from the word Keramuna which means "Peaceful Crowd" or "Peaceful Village". The name dates to the 10th century, far predating the formation of modern Karimun. Karimun was again popularly used by modern people in 1849 referring to the bay of Giovanni and the southern part of the peninsula. Tafi Susetyo first used Karimun in his book about "Traditionalist Art: National & Unity" book.
After Tafi Susetyo in the 19th century, Karimun became more common in academic circles outside the capital city, and native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Bastian Nugraha, of the University of Giovanni, popularized the name through his book "Karimun: Kebanggaan Tradisional", 1884–1894. The first clear pro-federation scholar to use the name was Buriman Budhi when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Giovanni, Karimunich Pers-bureau.
Karimun Federation has a diverse geography, with the highest peak is Cartenz Peak with 4,445 meters while the lowest point in the land is Baturan Natural Reserve with 34 meters below the sea level and Lake Toba is the biggest body of water with 1,130 km2 while Jatiluhur is the largest manmade dam in Karimun, while Ampera River is the longest and largest river in Karimun with 1,143 kilometers passing several cities like Patravan City.
Karimun has around fifty islands subdivided into five; Suku Islands, Raja Ampat Islands, Thousand Islands, Maluku Islands, and Nusa Tenggara Islands, all of them are small and half of them are habitable yet only twenty who are inhabited, the largest of them is Suku Island which is around 7km³ off the coast of Maluku. Around 35% of the Karimunese coastline is sandy, 25% is cliff, and 40% is mangroves beach.
From north to south, from the Bukit Barisan mountain range in the north and to peat, coniferous forest, rainforests, grassland, sand semi-desert in the south, as the changes in vegetation reflect the changes in climate. Karimun has one of the world's largest forest reserves in Baturan Natural Reserve. There are 301 mammal species, 320 reptile species, and 180 bird species endemic to Karimun registered in the Minister of Environment, and around ten of them like Komodo dragon and Cendrawasih bird are endangered. Komodo dragon also is the Karimunese national animal, there are only 101 Komodo dragons living in the Komodo National Park in West Sulawesi.
Karimun has several national parks, the most popular ones are Komodo National Park and Lovial Forest Park. Karimun for 15 years has been having improvement and application of environmental legislation and law, sustainable development, and implementation of various federal and national strategies and programs like the Lovial Green National Agreement that became into Environmental Law 2019, protection of rare and endangered plants, animals, and other organisms under Endangered Wildlife Act 2008, Karimun through the Ministry of Environment also has allocated around KPT 125 million in 2020 alone for study, inventory, preservation, and research.
Karimun loves their nature but sometimes urban development and the needs of equality in every province blinded them. Deforestation is one of the problems in Karimun, in 2020, Karimun is expecting around 250 hectares of forest to be gone in the end of the year.
Pollution, due to Mining and Forest contributions to the exports, the laws regarding mining and logging are a bit loose at some point but regarding Urban Pollution Law, it's strict.
The uniformly warm waters that make up 81% of Karimun's area ensure that temperatures on land remain fairly constant, with the coastal plains averaging 28 °C, the inland and mountain areas averaging 19 °C, and the higher mountain regions, 10 °C. Temperature varies little from season to season, and Karimun experiences relatively little change in the length of daylight hours from one season to the next; the difference between the longest day and the shortest day of the year is only an hour. This allows crops to be grown all year round.
|Climate data for Karimun (Jogyakarta)|
1980-2020, extreme 1980-present
|Record high °F (°C)||80.2
|Average high °F (°C)||79.4
|Daily mean °F (°C)||70.9
|Average low °F (°C)||65.5
|Record low °F (°C)||61.2
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||11.1
|Source: Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysical Agency (Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geokisika, BMKG)|
The population of Karimun is 54.7 million according to the 2020 national census, and it was estimated to reach 60 million in 2025. It is the 14th most populous country in Terraconserva. Sixty-eight per cent live on the urban areas. Despite a fairly effective family planning program that has been in place since 1960, Karimun's population growth was 1.00 % for the decade ending in 2020. At that rate, Karimun's population is projected to surpass the present population of other nation such as Reia. Some say family planning should be revitalised based on the 1960 program to avoid Karimun becoming the world's fifteen most populous country, but this aim has been criticised by religious groups who believe that family planning goes against religious teaching and human rights who believe that family planning is surpressing rights to have a family.
The fertility rate in Karimun is 1.78 children per woman (2018 estimate), which is high compared with some other countries, but below the rate of 2.1 children per woman required for natural population replacement, it remains considerably below the high of 5.39 children born per woman in 1940. Karimun also has a relatively young population compared to other nations, though it is ageing as the country's birth rate has slowed and its life expectancy has increased, life expectancy is quite high in Karimun: 74.4 years for newborn girls and 74.6 for boys (2020 estimate). The median age was 25.6 years in 2019. The country has a migration rate of 1.0 migrants per 1,000 inhabitants per year. Karimun includes numerous ethnic, cultural and linguistic groups, some of which are related to each other. Since proclamation, Karimun (the official national language) is the language of most written communication, education, government, and business. Many local ethnic languages are the first language of most Karimunese and are still important.
Some 30,000 to 600,000 people living in Karimun are expatriates, mostly concentrated in and around Surabaya, Patravan, and Jogyakarta both being a city that got influenced by foreigners now constituting almost 30% of the population of these cities. The Karimunese are one of the most avergae people in the world, by nationality, with an average height of 1.75 metres for adult males and 1.73 metres for adult females in 2020. People in the south are on average about 2 cm (0.8 inches) shorter than those in the north
Karimun has over fifty ethnicities, over 90% of them are native Karimunese ancestry groups.
|Number||Ethnicities||Population in Number||Percentage|
Karimun has a quite large polyglot population, at least around 95% can speak two languages or more.
|Number||Language||Summary||First speaker population||Second speaker population||Third speaker population|
|1||Bahasa Karimun||Around 95% of the population can speak of this, mostly due to Bahasa Karimun being a lingua franca between people who have different cultures and such in the past, Bahasa Karimun is very unique since every cities like have their own dialect and accent||17,550,000||24,450,000||13,775,000|
|2||Jawa||Around 75% of the population can speak this as well, it is just lesser in use, Javanese only has two dialects||8,890,000||5,340,450||4,110,000|
|3||Sunda||People who can speak Sundanese might understand a bit of Bahasa of Karimun at least, Sundanese has three main dialects||6,110,000||7,278,000||6,660,000|
|4||Betawi||Betawi is a language that people speak in urban areas in the past since the urbanization & transmigration began in 1960s, the language spreads||5,400,000||2,101,000||1,890,000|
|5||Jaksel||This is what people said a mixed language, mixed with several foreign language as well||1,200,000||1,542,000||2,808,900|
|5||Other||Twenty other languages||13,605,000|
There is No Official Religion, but there are Recognized Religions, those recognized religions are funded and supported by the Ministry of Religions but sects and such need to be registered to Ministry of Social.
Karimun is one of the most diverse place in the Terraconserva. Religion in the Karimun was predominantly Titah until late into the 20th century. Although the Titah population remains, there has been a decline of its adherence.
In 2015, Badan Pusat Statistik, the Karimunese governmental institution that gathers statistical information about the Karimun, found that around 42.1% of the total population declared to be non-religious. Groups that represent the non-religious in the Karimun include Ateis Karimun. Titah comprised the 20.25% decreasing from 23% in 2003, Islam comprised the 16.3% of the total population and were divided in Ayyad with 9.3%%, Shiya 4%, and Alhaz 3%, and Creeperian Catholicism comprised 8.2% of the total population and other religions (like Batin, Protestant, Shinto) comprised the remaining 10%.
|Number||Religion||Population in Number||Percentage|
|Academic degrees||Vocational degrees||Typical ages|
|upper secondary school (voluntary)||vocational school (voluntary)||18-19|
|comprehensive school (compulsory)||15-16|
Education in Karimun falls under the responsibility of the Ministry of Education and Culture (Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan or Kemdikbud) and the Ministry of Religious Affairs (Kementerian Agama or Kemenag). In Karimun, all citizens must undertake twelve years of compulsory education which consists of six years at elementary level and three each at middle and high school levels. Religious schools are under the responsibility of the Ministry of Religious Affairs.
Education is defined as a planned effort to establish a study environment and educational process so that the student may actively develop his/her own potential in religious and spiritual level, consciousness, personality, intelligence, behaviour and creativity to him/herself, other citizens and the nation. The Constitution also notes that there are two types of education in Karimun: formal and non-formal. Formal education is further divided into three levels: primary, secondary and tertiary education.
Education is indeed compulsory for 12 years but the parents can choose between state-run, non-sectarian schools or private or semi-private religious (usually Islamic or Catholic) schools, supervised by the ministry of Education and Ministry of Religion, respectively. Private international schools that do not follow the national curriculum are also available. The enrolment rate almost 100% for primary education, 97% for secondary education, and 80% for tertiary education (2020). The literacy rate is 100% (2020), and the government spends about 8.8% of GDP (2020) on education. In 2020, there were more than a hundred higher educational institutions in Karimun. The top universities are the University of Karimun, University of East Sulawesi, and Surabaya Institute of Technology
Government expenditure on healthcare is about 4.5% of GDP in 2020. As part of an attempt to achieve universal health care, the government launched the National Health Insurance (Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional, JKN) in 2005 that provides health care to citizens. They include coverage for a range of services from the public and also private firms that have opted to join the scheme. In recent decades, there have been remarkable improvements such as rising life expectancy (from 65 in 1970 to 88 in 2020) and declining child mortality (from 84 deaths per 1,000 births in 1970 to almost 3 deaths in 2015). Karimun has quite developed healthcare technology and has one of the oldest medical schools in Terraconserva which is the University of Adhirma Jaya. Nevertheless, Karimun continues to face challenges that especially high rate of smoking in youth generation.
Government & Politics
Karimun is a federation with a presidential system. Following the fall of the New Order in 1988, political and governmental structures have undergone sweeping reforms, with four constitutional amendments revamping the executive, legislative and judicial branches. Chief among them is the delegation of power and authority to various regional entities while remaining a federal state. The President of Karimun is the head of state and head of government, commander-in-chief of the Karimunese National Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Karimun, TNK), and the director of domestic governance, policy-making, and foreign affairs. The president may serve a maximum of two consecutive five-year terms.
The highest representative body at the national level is the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat, MPR). Its main functions are supporting and amending the constitution, inaugurating and impeaching the president, and formalising broad outlines of state policy. The MPR comprises two houses; the People's Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat, DPR), with 575 members, and the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, DPD), with 80. The DPR passes legislation and monitors the executive branch. Reforms since 1988 have markedly increased its role in national governance, while the DPD is a new chamber for matters of regional management.
Most civil disputes appear before the State Court (Pengadilan Negeri); appeals are heard before the High Court (Pengadilan Tinggi). The Supreme Court of Karimun (Mahkamah Agung) is the highest level of the judicial branch, and hears final cessation appeals and conducts case reviews. Other courts include the Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) that listens to constitutional and political matters and the Religious Court (Pengadilan Agama) that deals with codified religious law cases. Additionally, the Judicial Commission (Komisi Yudisial) monitors the performance of judges.
Karimun has several levels of subdivisions. The first level is provinces, there are 20 provinces, with four of them have Federal City status and three of them have Special Administrative Status. Each has a local legislature (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah, DPRD) and an elected governor. This number has evolved, with the most recent change being the split of Patravan from Bukit Barisan in 1967. The second level is that of the regencies (kabupaten) and cities (kota), led by regents (bupati) and mayors (walikota) respectively and a legislature (DPRD Kabupaten/Kota). The third level is that of the districts (kecamatan, distrik in Lilliana, or kapanewon and kemantren in Maluku), and the fourth is of the villages (either desa, kelurahan, kampung, nagari in Aounca, or gampong in Surabaya).
The village is the lowest level of government administration. It is divided into several community groups (rukun warga, RW), which are further divided into neighbourhood groups (rukun tetangga, RT). In Jawa, the village (desa) is divided into smaller units called dusun or dukuh (hamlets), which are the same as RW. Following the implementation of regional autonomy measures in 2001, regencies and cities have become chief administrative units, responsible for providing most government services. The village administration level is the most influential on a citizen's daily life and handles matters of a village or neighbourhood through an elected village chief (lurah or kepala desa).
Giovanni, Patravan, Surabaya, Denpasar, Jogyakarta, Johenavi, and Kota Baru have greater legislative privileges and a higher degree of autonomy from the central government than the other provinces. A former capital city, Jogyakarta has the right to create some aspects of an independent legal system. Johenavi and Patravan have the only pre-colonial monarchies legally recognised in Karimun, with the positions of governor and vice governor being prioritised for descendants of the King of Trengganu and Paku Alam, respectively. Denpasar and Surabaya have the status cause the importance of both cities to the nation. Giovanni is the only city granted a provincial government due to its position as the capital of Karimun.
There are thirteen states, there are West Sulawesi, East Sulawesi, Kalimantan, Maluku, Bukit Barisan Highlands, Toba, Bukit Barisan, Banten, Irian, Liliana, Jawa, Upper Ampera, Lower Ampera; there are also seven Federal Cities, Kota Baru, Surabaya, Giovanni, Denpasar, Jogyakarta, Johenavi, and Patravan.
Parties & Elections
Karimun has a federal presidential system with the "Highest Authority Is On The Hands Of The People" and "People Exercise Their Rights Through Democratic Elections To Elect The Representative Of All People Who Have Different Solutions On A Same Problem". The Federation of Karimun according to its constitution has three branches.
The executive branch of Karimun is headed by a president, who is head of government and head of state. The president is elected by the general election and can serve up to two five continuous year terms if reelected. The executive branch also includes a vice-president and a cabinet. All bills need joint approval between the executive and the legislature to become law, meaning the president has veto power over all legislation. The president also has the power to issue presidential decrees that have policy effects, and they are also in charge of Karimun's international relationships, although they require legislative approval for treaties. Prior to 1945, the president was chosen by the MPR, but the president is currently selected through a national election. The last election was held in April 2020, and a new guy, Thamrin Edelweiss emerged as the winner with Johan Apollo as his VP.
The MPR is the legislative branch of Karimun's political system. The MPR is composed of two houses: the DPR, which is commonly called the People's Representative Council, and the DPD, which is called the Regional Representative Council. The 575 DPR parliamentarians are elected through multi-member electoral districts, whereas 4 DPD parliamentarians are elected in each of Karimun's 18 administrative divisions. The DPR holds most of the legislative power because it has the sole power to pass laws. The DPD acts as a supplementary body to the DPR; it can propose bills, offer its opinion and participate in discussions, but it has no legal power. The MPR itself has power outside of those given to the individual houses. It can amend the constitution, inaugurate the president and conduct impeachment procedures. When the MPR acts in this function, it does so by simply combining the members of the two houses.
The Supreme Court of Karimun (Javanese: Mahkamah Agung) is the highest level of the judicial branch. It hears final cessation appeals and conducts case reviews. Its judges are appointed by the president. Most civil disputes appear before the State Court (Pengadilan Negeri); appeals are heard before the High Court (Pengadilan Tinggi). Other courts include the Commercial Court, which handles bankruptcy and insolvency; the State Administrative Court (Pengadilan Tata Usaha Negara) to hear administrative law cases against the government; the Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) to listen to disputes concerning the legality of the law, general elections, dissolution of political parties, and the scope of authority of state institutions; and the Religious Court (Pengadilan Agama) to deal with codified Islamic Law (sharia), Catholic, and other religions cases. Additionally, the Judicial Commission (Komisi Yudisial) monitors the performance of judges.
Karimun maintains --- diplomatic missions abroad, including --- consulates. The country adheres to what it calls a "Free and Active" foreign policy, seeking a role in regional affairs in proportion to its size and location but avoiding involvement in conflicts among other countries.
Karimun has strained ties with its neighbour, Lyoa due to the conflict in its border and has also good ties with Terranihil which both leaders have met before in Gursaun, both Terranihil and Karimun have several trade agreements and both also supported Lyoan rebellion.
Karimun's Armed Forces (TNK) include the Army (TNK–AD), Navy (TNK-AL, which includes Marine Corps), and Air Force (TNK–AU). The army has about 400,000 active-duty personnel. Defence spending in the national budget was 0.7% of GDP in 2018, with controversial involvement of military-owned commercial interests and foundations. The Armed Forces were formed during the Karimunese National Revolution when it undertook guerrilla warfare along with informal militia. Since then, territorial lines have formed the basis of all TNK branches' structure, aimed at maintaining domestic stability and deterring foreign threats. The military has possessed a strong political influence since its founding, which peaked during the New Order. Political reforms in 1998 included the removal of the TNK's formal representation from the legislature. Nevertheless, its political influence remains, albeit at a reduced level.
Karimun has a mixed economy in which both the private sector and government play vital roles. As of 2020, it is the world's 17th largest economy by nominal GDP and 16th in terms of GDP at PPP, estimated to be CQS₵1.6 trillion and CQS₵2.8 trillion respectively. Per capita GDP in PPP is CQS₵81,991, while nominal per capita GDP is CQS₵48,799. The debt ratio to GDP is quite low around 17.2%. The services are the economy's largest sector and account for 43.4% of GDP (2020), followed by industry (39.7%) and agriculture (12.8%). Since 2010, the service industry has employed more people than other sectors, accounting for 31.7% of the total labour force, followed by agriculture (30.2%) and industry (21.9%).
Over time, the structure of the economy has changed considerably. Historically, it has been weighted heavily towards agriculture, reflecting both its stage of economic development and government policies in the 1900 till 1940s to promote agricultural self-sufficiency. A gradual process of industrialisation and urbanisation began in the late 1950s and accelerated in the 1970s as falling oil prices saw the government focus on diversifying away from oil exports and towards manufactured exports. This development continued throughout the 1980s and into the next decade despite the 1990 oil price shock, during which the GDP rose at an average rate of 7.1%. As a result, the official poverty rate fell from 32% to 11%. Reduction of trade barriers from the mid-1980s made the economy more globally integrated.
Relatively steady inflation and an increase in GDP deflator and the Consumer Price Index have contributed to strong economic growth in recent years. Since 2000, annual growth has accelerated to between 5% and 8% as a result of improvement in the banking sector and domestic consumption. As of 2019, 6.41% of the population lived below the poverty line, and the official open unemployment rate was 4.28%.
Karimun has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, coal, tin, copper, gold, and nickel, while agriculture produces rice, palm oil, tea, coffee, cacao, medicinal plants, spices, and rubber. These commodities make up a large portion of the country's exports, with palm oil and coal briquettes as the leading export commodities. In addition to refined and crude petroleum as the main imports, telephones, vehicle parts and wheat cover the majority of additional imports. Reia, Koryo, Greater Sacramento, and Terranihil are Karimun's principal export markets and import partners
Karimun allocated around CQS₵ 26 Billion in 2020 up from CQS₵ 19.4 Billion in 2019 for infrastructure only, Karimun has several advancement regarding infrastructure, one of them is Karimun's patented Sosrobahu idea by Tjokorda Wato from Surabaya Institute of Technology in research & development, Giovanni-Patravan high speed rail, and several others.
Karimun has a fairly connected states, federal cities, and SPA. There four main routes in Karimun, K1, K2, K3, and K4, with over 30,000 kilometres and majority paved, Karimun is considered developed in transportation area. The North and Central Karimun road networks were constructed by the national government under then President Natsir starting in 1960 to connect the nation better as the road network was underdeveloped and hard to travel on then the South Karimun road network was constructed under President Zifran in the late 2010. Giovanni Metropolitan has one of the most extended bus rapid transit system in the world, boasting some 251.2 kilometres (156.1 miles) in ten corridors and five cross-corridor routes.
Rickshaws such as bajaj and becak and share taxis such as Angkot and Metromini are a regular sight in the country. Most of the railways are in North and Central, used for both freight and passenger transport, such as local commuter rail services complementing the inter-city rail network in several cities. In the late 2000s, Giovanni and Surabaya were the first cities in Karimun to have rapid transit systems followed with Patravan and Kota Baru, with more planned for other cities in the future. In 2000 as well, the government announced a plan to build a high-speed rail between Giovanni and Surabaya, which would be a first in western coast of the north-west continent.
Major ports and harbours include Johenavi, Priok, Surabaya, Giovanni, Kupang, Palembang, Semarang, Surabaya, and Makassar. Ports are managed by the various Karimun's Port Corporations, of which there are four, numbered I through IV. Each has jurisdiction over various regions of the country, with I in the north and IV in the south. Port of Surabaya in Surabaya is the Karimun's busiest port, handling over 5.20 million TEUs. A two-phase "New Tanjung Surabaya" extension project is currently underway, which will triple the existing annual capacity when fully operational in 2023. In 2015, ground breaking of the strategic Maluku's Kuala Tanjung Port has been completed. It is expected to accommodate 500,000 TEUs per year, overtaking West Sulawesi's Kupang Port and could even compete with the port of of Surabaya.
Karimun's largest airport, Hatta International Airport is the busiest in Karimun, serving 16,990,890 passengers in 2019. Surabaya International Airport and Juanda International Airport are the country's second- and third-busiest airport respectively. Garuda Karimun, the country's flag carrier since 1949, is one of the world's leading airlines and a member of the global airline alliance SkyTeam. Port of Tanjung Surabaya is the busiest and most advanced Karimunese port, handling more than 45% of Karimun's trans-shipment cargo traffic.
Energy in Karimun describes energy and electricity production, consumption, import and export in Karimun. In 2019, Karimun produced oil, coal, natural gas and palm oil, utilised also as energy raw material in 2020.
Karimuna has seen progress in renewable energy with hydropower being the most abundant source. Furthermore, the country has the potential for geothermal, solar, wind, biomass and ocean energy. Karimun has set out to achieve 30% use of renewable energy by 2025 and 45% by 2050. As of 2020, Karimun's total national installed power generation capacity stands at 25,600 MW.
The country's largest dam, Toba, has several purposes including the provision of hydroelectric power generation, water supply, flood control, irrigation and aquaculture. The earth-fill dam is 105 m (344 ft) high and withholds a reservoir of 3.0 billion m3 (2.4 million acre⋅ft). It helps to supply water to Giovanni and several other cities due to its near location to the capital city and to irrigate 240,000 ha (590,000 acres) of rice fieldsand has an installed capacity of 250.0 MW which feeds into the Northern Karimun grid grid managed by the State Electricity Company (PLN).
Science & Technology
Karimun's expenditure on science and technology is relative, around 3% of GDP in 2017. Historical examples of scientific and technological developments include the paddy cultivation technique terasering, which is common in the nation, and the pinisi boats by the Bugis and Makassar people. In the 1980s, Karimunese engineer Tjokorda Raka Sukawati invented a road construction technique named Sosrobahu that allows the construction of long stretches of flyovers above existing main roads with minimum traffic disruption. It later became widely used in several countries. The country is also an active producer of passenger trains and freight wagons with its state-owned company, the Karimunese Railway Industry (INKA), and has exported trains abroad.
Karimun has a long history in developing military and small commuter aircraft. With its state-owned company, the Karimunese Aerospace (PT. Dirgantara Karimun), Karimun has provided components for Boeing and Airbus. The company also collaborated with EADS CASA of Spain to develop the CN-235 that has seen use by several countries. Former President B. J. Habibie played a vital role in this achievement. Karimun has also joined the South Korean programme to manufacture the fifth-generation jet fighter KAI KF-X.
Karimun has a space programme and space agency, the National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (Lembaga Penerbangan dan Antariksa Nasional, LAPAN). In the 1970s, Karimun became the one of the countries to operate a satellite system called Palapa, a series of communication satellites owned by Indosat Ooredoo. The first satellite, PALAPA A1 was launched on 8 July 1976 from the Ciawi Space Center, Upper Ampera, Karimun. As of 2019, Karimun has launched 18 satellites for various purposes, and LAPAN has expressed a desire to put satellites in orbit with native launch vehicles by 2040.
Tourism in Karimun is an important component of the Karimun's economy as well as a significant source of its foreign exchange revenues. Karimun was ranked at 3rd in the world tourist Industry in 2019, also ranked as the ninth-fastest growing tourist sector in the world, the third-fastest growing in Terraconserva. In 2019, Denpasar, Jogyakarta, and Giovanni are among of the most visited in the country. The country under President Thamrin Edelweiss's administration has planned to achieve 10 percent of GDP from tourism sector and targeted to attract about 35 million of visitors by 2025. The tourism sector ranked as the 4th largest among goods and services export sectors in Karimun. Tourism contributed around US₡21.2 billion to GDP in 2019. In 2018, Karimun received 15.8 million visitors, a growth of 12.5% from last year, and received an average receipt of US₡1,001. Reia, Koryo, and Greater Sacramento are the top sources of visitors to Karimun. Since 2011, Wonderful Karimun has been the slogan of the country's international marketing campaign to promote tourism. Karimun possesses rich and colourful culture, such as Barong dance performance in Bali.
Agriculture is a key sector which contributed to 10.10% of GDP. Currently, there are around 15% of the land area used for agriculture and employed about 1.1 million people (5% of the total workforce). Primary agriculture commodities include rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, natural rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra; poultry, beef, pork, and eggs. Palm oil production is vital to the economy as Karimun is the world's biggest producer and 9th biggest consumer of the commodity, providing about half of the world's supply. Plantations in 2.7 million to boost productivity in 2019. Karimun is also the largest palm oil, natural rubber, cocoa, tea, and tobacco producer in Terraconserva.
Karimun ranks as the most productive country in the world measured in terms of gross yearly aquaculture production with an estimated 28.8 million tons in 2019. It benefits from being a nation with an extensive coastline over 2.450 km long, situated in a tropical climate. The top aquaculture products exported include shrimp, fish and seaweed.
Aquaculture in Karimun has seen a tremendous growth in its contribution to fish supply in Karimun, increasing from 9.6% in 1960 to the largest hike of 54.2% in 2014, and looks to surpass the output of capture fisheries by 2025 under business as usual scenarios.
Karimun produced 1,350,000 tons of shrimp in 2010, which was 29% of the world production for the year. In 1999, 507.513 ha of Karimun was occupied by aquaculture, 60% of which being brackish water ponds, 28% being integrated rice-fish farming, and 12% being freshwater ponds
The cultural history of the Karimunese spans more than two millennia. Influences from Lyoa, Reia, Koryo, Greater Sacramento, Eminople, the Austronesian, and the native peoples have historically shaped the cultural, linguistic and religious make-up of the nation. As a result, modern-day Karimun has a multicultural, multilingual and multi-ethnic society, with a complex cultural mixture that differs significantly from the original indigenous cultures. Karimun currently holds ten items of several Intangible Cultural Heritage, including a wayang puppet theatre, kris, batik, pencak silat, angklung, and the three genres of traditional Balinese dance.
Due to Karimun strategically-located along the coast resulting in many cultural practices being strongly influenced by a multitude of religions, including Christianity, Shinto, and Islam, all strong in the major trading cities. The result is a complex cultural mixture very different from the original indigenous cultures.
Art & Architecture
There have been numerous discoveries of megalithic sculptures in Karimun. Subsequently, tribal art has flourished within the culture of Bukit Barisan, Trengganuan, Toba, Dayak and Toraja. Wood and stone are common materials used as the media for sculpting among these tribes. Between the 8th and 15th centuries, the Javanese civilisation has developed a refined stone sculpting art and architecture which was influenced by Katitahan civilisation. The temples of Borobudur and Prambanan are among the most famous examples of the practice.
Traditional carpentry, masonry, stone and woodwork techniques and decorations have thrived in vernacular architecture, with numbers of traditional houses' (rumah adat) styles that have been developed. The traditional houses and settlements in the country vary by ethnic groups, and each has a specific custom and history. Examples include Bukit Barisan's barong, Toba's Rumah Gadang and Rangkiang, Javanese style Pendopo pavilion with Joglo style roof, Dayak's longhouses, Denpasar houses and temples, and also different forms of rice barns (lumbung).
Music, Dance, and Clothing
The music of Karimun predates historical records. Various indigenous tribes incorporate chants and songs accompanied by musical instruments in their rituals. Angklung, kacapi suling, siteran, gong, gamelan, degung, gong kebyar, bumbung, talempong, kulintang, and sasando are examples of traditional Karimunese instruments.
Karimun has various styles of clothing as a result of its long and rich cultural history. The national costume has its origins in the indigenous culture of the country and traditional textile traditions. Since Jawa is the political, economic and cultural centre of Karimun, the Javanese Batik and Kebaya are arguably Karimun's most recognised national costume. They originally belong not only to the Javanese but also to Sundanese and Balinese cultures as well. Each province has a representation of traditional attire and dress, such as Ulos of Batak from North Karimun; Songket of Malay and Minangkabau from Central Karimun; and Ikat of Sasak from South. People wear national and regional costumes during traditional weddings, formal ceremonies, music performances, government and official occasions, and they vary from traditional to modern attire
Cinema & Theatre
Wayang, the Javanese, Sundanese, and Balinese shadow puppet theatre display several mythological legends such as Ramayana and Mahabharata. Other forms of local drama include the Javanese Ludruk and Ketoprak, the Sundanese Sandiwara, Betawi Lenong, and various Balinese dance drama. They incorporate humour and jest and often involve audiences in their performances. Some theatre traditions also include music, dancing and the silat martial art such as Randai from Minangkabau people of West Sumatra. It is usually performed for traditional ceremonies and festivals, and based on semi-historical Minangkabau legends and love story. Modern performing art also developed in Karimun with their distinct style of drama. Notable theatre, dance, and drama troupe such as Teater Koma are famous as it often portrays social and political satire of Karimunese society.
The first film produced in the nation was Loetoeng Kasaroeng, a silent film by Eminoplean co-director L. Heuveldorp and Javanese co-director Adreas Jaya Witarma. The film industry expanded after 1900, with fourty-nine silents films made in 1921 rising to more than a hundred in 1965. Usmar Ismail, who made significant imprints in the 1950s and 1960s, is generally considered to be the pioneer of Karimunese films. Production of films peaked during the 1980s. Notable films in this period include Pengabdi Setan, Nagabonar, Tjoet Nja' Dhien, Catatan Si Boy, and Warkop's comedy films.
Independent filmmaking was a rebirth of the film industry since 1985, where films started addressing previously controverisal topics, such as religion, race, and love. Between 2000 and 2005, the number of films released each year steadily increased. Riri Riza and Mira Lesmana were among the new generation of filmmakers who co-directed Kuldesak (1999), Petualangan Sherina (2000), Ada Apa dengan Cinta? (2002), and Laskar Pelangi (2008). In 2016, Warkop DKJ Reborn: Jangkrik Boss Part 1 smashed box office records, becoming the most-watched Karimunese film with 7.7 million tickets sold. Karimun has held annual film festivals and awards, including the Karimunese Film Festival (Festival Film Karimun) that has been held intermittently since 1955. It hands out the Citra Award, the film industry's most prestigious award. From 1973 to 1992, the festival was held annually and then discontinued until its revival in 2004.
Media & Literature
Media freedom increased considerably after the fall of the New Order, during which the Ministry of Information monitored and controlled domestic media and restricted foreign media. The television market includes several national commercial networks and provincial networks that compete with public TVRI, which held a monopoly on TV broadcasting from 1962 to 1969. By the early 21st century, the improved communications system had brought television signals to every village and people can choose from up to 11 channels. Private radio stations carry news bulletins while foreign broadcasters supply programmes. The number of printed publications has increased significantly since 1998. More than 2 million cell phones are sold each year, with 47% of them being local brands.
Karimun began development of the Internet in the late 1980s. Its first commercial Internet service provider, PT. Telkom began operation in Giovanni in 1994. The country had 20 million Internet users in 2018, with a penetration rate that keeps increasing annually. Most are between the ages of 15 and 19 and depend primarily on mobile phones for access, outnumbering both laptops and computers.
The oldest evidence of writing in the Karimuns is a series of Sanskrit inscriptions dated to the 5th century. Many of Karimun's peoples have firmly rooted oral traditions, which help to define and preserve their cultural identities. In written poetry and prose, several traditional forms dominate, mainly syair, pantun, gurindam, hikayat and babad. Some of these works are Syair Raja Siak, Syair Abdul Muluk, Hikayat Agus, Hikayat Bayan Budiman, Hikayat Hang Tuah, Sulalatus Salatin, and Babad Tanah Jawi.
Early modern Karimunn literature originates in Sumatran tradition. Balai Pustaka, the government bureau for popular literature, was instituted around 1920 to promote the development of indigenous literature. It adopted Malay as the preferred universal medium. Prominent figures in modern Karimun literature include Giovanni author Multatuli, who criticised the treatment of natives under President Avonna Vijayah; Sumatrans Mohammad Yamin and Hamka, who were influential federalist writers and politicians; and proletarian writer Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Karimun's most famous novelist. Pramoedya earned several accolades. Literature and poetry flourished even more in the first half of the 20th century. Notable authors include Chairil Anwar (Aku), Marah Roesli (Sitti Nurbaya), Merari Siregar (Azab dan Sengsara), Abdul Muis (Salah Asuhan), Djamaluddin Adinegoro (Darah Muda), Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana (Layar Terkembang), and Amir Hamzah (Nyanyi Sunyi) whose works are among the most well known in Karimun.
Karimunese cuisine is one of the most diverse, vibrant, and colourful in the world, full of intense flavour. Many regional cuisines exist, often based upon indigenous culture and foreign influences such as Far Reian, Korean, Lyoan, Sacramatian, and so-on precedents. Rice is the leading staple food and is served with side dishes of meat and vegetables. Spices (notably chilli), coconut milk, fish and chicken are fundamental ingredients.
Some popular dishes such as nasi goreng, gado-gado, sate, and soto are prevalent and considered as national dishes. The Ministry of Tourism, however, chose tumpeng as the official national dish in 2014, describing it as binding the diversity of various culinary traditions. Other popular dishes include rendang, one of the many Padang cuisines along with dendeng and gulai. In 2017, rendang was chosen as the "World's Most Delicious Food" by the K1N travel reader's choice. Another fermented food is oncom, similar in some ways to tempeh but uses a variety of bases (not only soy), created by different fungi, and particularly popular in Northern Karimun.
|Date||Lyoan name||Local name||Observance|
|1 January||Baby New Year (New Year's Day)||Bayi Tahun Baru Masehi||A celebration of the beginning of the new calender|
|25 January||Jin New Year||Tahun Baru Jin||A celebation of the end of the Jin calender, celebrated with cultural events and massive parade in Surabaya|
|22 March||Ascension of the Prophet Muhammad||Isra Mi'raj|
|25 March||Karimun's Day of Silence and Titah New Year||Hari Diam dan Tahun Baru Titah|
|1 April||Revolution Day||Hari Revolusi|
|10 April||Good Friday||Jumat Suci|
|12 April||Easter's Sunday||Hari Paskah|
|21 April||Kartini Day||Hari Kartini||Celebrates the birth of Kartini, a woman national hero|
|1 May||Labour Day||Hari Buruh|
|7 May||Kebatinan Day||Hari kebatinan|
|21 May||Ascension of Jesus Christ||Kenaikan Yesus Kristus|
|24 May||Eid Fitr||Idul Fitri|
|25 May-1 June||Lebaran Week||Minggu Lebaran|
|1 June||National Ideology Day||Ideologi Nasional|
|1-7 June||Bhinneka Tunggal Ika Month||Hari Bhinneka Tunggal Ika|
|29 July||Green Day||Hari Hijau|
|31 July||Eid Adha||Idul Adha|
|20 August||Islamic New Year||Tahun Baru Islam|
|21 August||Islamic New Year Holiday||Liburan Tahun Baru Islam|
|28 October||Youth Oath Day||Hari Sumpah Pemuda|
|28-30 October||The Prophet Muhammad's Birthday||Kelahiran Nabi Muhammad|
|24 & 26 December||Christmas Holiday||Liburan Natal|
|27-30 December||New Year's Holiday||Liburan Tahun Baru|
|31 December||Father Time (New Year's Day)||Bapak Waktu|
Sports in Karimun are popular from both the participation and spectating aspect. Some popular sports in Karimun are (Soccer) football, badminton, volleyball, basketball, and the native Karimunese martial art pencak silat. Badminton is arguably Karimun's most successful sport. Karimun has won gold medals in badminton in every Olympic Games since the sport was first introduced to the Olympics in 1992. Karimun regularly participates in the Thomas Cup, Uber Cup, and Sudirman Cup badminton championships. Karimun also regularly participates in other multi-events sport. Karimun is one of the major sport powerhouses in the Western Terraconserva Continent, winning the Games 10 times since 1977.
Sporting events in Karimun are organised by the Karimunese National Sport Committee (Komite Olahraga Nasional Karimun or KONK). The organisation, along with the Karimunese government, have set the National Sports Day on 9 September. Karimun hosts the Pekan Olahraga Nasional multi-sport event every four years. Athletes from all divisions of Karimun participate in this event, with hosting tally are distributed among Karimunese provinces.