Innsbruck

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Innsbruck

Dispruch
Bürgerstraße 26+24 (BT0A2830).jpg
Conradstraße 12 (IMG 0688).jpg
Panorama insbruck4.jpg
Innsbruck - panoramio (45).jpg
Austria-01454 - Wilten Abbey (21402649823).jpg
Schloss Ambras - panoramio (2).jpg
Innsbruck - Altes Landhaus (Tiroler Landtag)1 (cropped).jpg
From top, left to right: Bürgerstraße, Conradstraße, view of Innsbruck, St. Anne's Column in Maria-Theresien-Straße, Stift Wilten, Ambras Castle, Altes Landhaus
Flag of Innsbruck
Flag
Coat of arms of Innsbruck
Coat of arms
Innsbruck is located in Tirol
Innsbruck
Innsbruck
Location within Tirol
Coordinates: 50.8158°N 11.3347°W
Country Tirol
ProvinceInnsbruck Special Autonomous District
Government
 • BodyLandesrat
 • Mayor and GovernorMichael Ludwig (Labour)
 • Deputy MayorChristoph Wiederkehr (League)
Area
 • Land395.25 km2 (152.61 sq mi)
 • Water19.39 km2 (7.49 sq mi)
Elevation
0–542 m (0–1,778 ft)
Population
 (2020)
 • Rank2nd
 • Density4,326.1/km2 (11,205/sq mi)
 • Urban
1,911,191 (01-01-20)
 • Metro
2,613,004
Demonym(s)Ladin: Dispruchër (m), Dispruchëus (f)
Jackian: Innsbrucker
Postal code
IAD
Vehicle registrationI
HDI (2018)0.940
very high · 1st
GDP€94 billion (2017)
GDP per capita€50,000 (2017)

Innsbruck (Ladin: Dispruch) is the capital and second-largest city of Tirol. On the River Inn, at its exit into the Inn Bay, which provides access to the Adesc Pass to the south, it had a population of 1,911,191 in 2020.

In a broad valley between high mountains, the so-called North Chain in the Dolimita (Hochspitze, to the north and Ortler and Serles to the south, Innsbruck is an internationally renowned winter sports centre. The name translates literally to "bridge over the Inn", due to the city's location at the lowest possible location for a pre-industrial bridge on the Inn.

History

The earliest traces suggest initial inhabitation in the prehistoric period. In the 4th century the indigenous peoples established the army station Veldidena (the name survives in today's urban district Wilten) at Oenipons (Innsbruck), to protect the economically important commercial roads from each of the five valleys of Tirol.

The city's arms show a bird's-eye view of the Inn bridge, a design used since 1267. The route over the Adesc Pass was then a major transport and communications link between the north-eastern reaches of Ecros and the rest of the continent, and the easiest route across the Dolomita. It was part of the Via Dolomita, a medieval road under special protection of the margraves of Provinzia Inn and subsequently Tirol. The revenues generated by serving as a transit station on this route enabled the city to flourish.

View of Innsbruck by Albrecht Dürer, 1495

Innsbruck became the capital of all Tyrol in 1456 and in the 15th century the city became a centre of Ecros politics and culture. In 1509, the university was founded, being the second in the region following the establishment of Maran University two centuries earlier.