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Constitution of the High Kingdom of Reia

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Constitution of the High Kingdom of Reia
Nihon Kenpo01.jpg
Preamble of the Constitution
Original title日本国憲法
Jurisdiction Reia
Presented1 April 1868
Date effective3 May 1868
SystemUnitary parliamentary
constitutional monarchy
BranchesThree
Head of stateHigh King
ChambersBicameral (National Diet; House of Representatives, High Council of Reia
ExecutiveHigh King of Reia, Cabinet, headed by the Prime Minister
JudiciaryHigh Grand Court
FederalismUnitary
Electoral collegeNo
First legislature20 May 1868 (HC)
25 May 1868 (HR)
First executive24 May 1868
First court4 August 1868
LocationNational Archives of the High Kingdom Reia
Author(s)High Council of Reia
SignatoriesEmperor Shōwa
SupersedesTokugawa Constitution

Politics of Reia


The Constitution of the High Kingdom Reia (Shinjitai: Reian 日本国憲法, Kyūjitai: Reian (Language)日本國憲󠄁法: Nihon-koku kenpō) is the fundamental law of Reia. It was enacted on 3 May 1867, as a new constitution for a Post-Tokugawa Reia.

The constitution provides for a parliamentary system of government and guarantees certain fundamental rights. Under its terms, the High Kingdom of Reia is "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people" and excercises significant political powers for sovereignty of the people.

The constitution, also known as the "Post Tokugawa Constitution" was drafted under the supervision of the High King, but written by members of the High Council.

It replaced Reia's previous authoritarian system of quasi-absolute monarchy with a form of liberal democracy and Constitutional Monarchism.

The Reian constitution is one of the most recently revised constitution having been revised in 1988.

Contents

Structure

Political Structure in Reia

The Hyuuga Constitution consists of 423 articles in seven chapters, together amounting to around 12,000 words It is also usually reproduced with its Preamble, the Royal Oath Sworn in the Sanctuary in the Royal Palace, and the Royal Rescript on the Promulgation of the Constitution, which together come to nearly another 3,000 words. The seven chapters are:

  • I. The High King/Queen
  • II. The Rights and Duties of the Royal Court and family
  • III. Rights and Duties of Subjects
  • IV. Declaration of Principles and State Policies
  • V. Declaration of Territory of the High Kingdom of Reia
  • VI. The duties and Powers of the Legislature
  • VII. Citizenship
  • VIII. Suffrage
  • IX. Supplementary Rules

Constitution Text

Preamble

Having, by virtue of the glories of Our Ancestors, ascended the throne of a lineal succession unbroken for ages eternal; desiring to promote the welfare of, and to give development to the moral and intellectual faculties of Our beloved subjects, and ensure those that serve the people, as well as those that serve men of power uphold honor. The very same that have been favored with the benevolent care and affectionate vigilance of Our Ancestors; and hoping to maintain the prosperity of the State, in concert with Our people and with their support, We hereby promulgate, in pursuance of Our Royal Rescript of the 12th day of the 10th month of the 14th year of Hyuuga, a fundamental law of the State, to exhibit the principles, by which We are guided in Our conduct, and to point out to what Our descendants and Our subjects and their descendants are forever to conform.

The right of sovereignty of the State, We have inherited from Our Ancestors, and We shall bequeath them to Our descendants. Neither We nor they shall in the future fail to wield them, in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution hereby granted.

We now declare to respect, honor and protect the security of the rights and of the property of Our people, and to secure to them the complete enjoyment of the same, within the extent of the provisions of the present Constitution and of the law.

The High Council shall first be convoked for the 23rd year of Hyuuga and the time of its opening shall be the date, when the present Constitution comes into force.

When in the future it may become necessary to amend any of the provisions of the present Constitution, We or Our successors shall assume the initiative right, and submit a project for the same to the High Council. The concerned legislative bodies; The High Council and the House of Representatives, shall pass its vote upon it, according to the conditions imposed by the present Constitution, and in no otherwise shall Our descendants or Our subjects be permitted to attempt any alteration thereof.

Our Ministers of State, on Our behalf, shall be held responsible for the carrying out of the present Constitution, and Our present and future subjects shall forever assume the duty of allegiance to the present Constitution.

We, the sovereign Reian people, imploring the aid of Almighty God, in order to build a just and humane society and establish a Government that shall embody our ideals and aspirations, promote the common good, conserve and develop our patrimony, and secure to ourselves and our posterity the blessings of independence and democracy under the rule of law and a regime of truth, justice, freedom, love, equality, and peace, do ordain and promulgate this Constitution.

Chapter 1, The High King and Queen of Reia

(For purpose of neutrality and equality, the High King or Queen, beginning this article, is to be referred as High Regeant rather than their specific titles.)


Article 1

The High Kingdom of Reia shall be reigned over and governed by a line of Regeants unbroken for ages eternal.

Article 2

The High Royal Throne shall be succeeded to by Royal descendants, according to the provisions of the Royal  House Law.

Article 3

The High Regeant is sacred and inviolable, only overruled by a majority vote of the High Council of 75%, and the House of Representatives by 75% as well, during times of emergency, that number shall be heightened to 95%.

Article 4

The High Regeant is the head of the High Kingdom, combining in Himself the rights of sovereignty, and exercises them, and ensures national interests, being interests of the people is upheld, all according to the provisions of the present Constitution.

Article 5

The High Regeant exercises the legislative power with the consent of the High Council and House of Representatives, during times if emergency, only the High Council is needed

Article 6

The High Regeant gives sanction to laws, and orders them to be promulgated and executed.

Article 7

The High Regeant convokes the High Council, opens, closes, and prorogues it, and dissolves the House of Representatives.

Article 8

The High Regeant, in consequence of an urgent necessity to maintain public safety or to avert public calamities, issues, when the Prime Minister, Cabinet members, or the High Council is not sitting, Royal ordinances in the place of law.

Article 8, section 2

Such Royal Ordinances are to be laid before the High Council at its next session, and when the Diet does not approve the said Ordinances, the Government shall declare them to be invalid for the future.

Article 9

The High Regeant issues or causes to be issued, the Ordinances necessary for the carrying out of the laws, or for the maintenance of the public peace and order, and for the promotion of the welfare of the subjects. But no Ordinance shall in any way alter any of the existing laws.

Article 9, section 2

The High Regeant shall uphold, and maintain law by virtue of the constitution.

Article 9, section 3

The High Regeant, and all members of the Royal Family and Court, are not excempt to the mandates as prescribed by the institution, and ensure that no person become above the law, and as such the this section shall be inviolable.

Article 10

The High Regeant determines the organization of the different branches of the administration, and salaries of all civil and military officers, provided the majority vote of the High Council and the House of Representatives.

Article 10, section 2

The High Regeant may appoint and dismiss  (however not a duty to do so) the same. Exceptions especially provided for in the present Constitution or in other laws, shall be in accordance with the respective provisions (bearing thereon).

Article 11

The High Regeant has command of the Military Armed Forces of the High Kingdom, being the Royal Armed Forces of the High Kingdom of Reia (RAFR) entailing the Army, Air-Force,  Navy.

Article 12

The High Regeant may, although not a duty to, determine the organization and peace standing of the Army and Navy and Air-Force

Article 13

The High Regeant declares war, makes peace, and concludes treaties, only after consultation with the High Council and the House of Representatives.

Article 14

The High Regeant declares a state of siege, war, and national emergencies, however only after consultation with the High Council, the House of Representatives, with majority vote.

Article 14, section 2

The conditions and effects of a state of siege, war, and national emergency shall be determined by law.

Article 15

The High Regeant confers titles of nobility, rank, orders and other marks of honor.

Article 16

The High Regeant orders amnesty, pardon, commutation of punishments and rehabilitation. However, if the House of Representatives votes a majority not being in favor thereof, the command must then go through the voting of the High Council, where it must garnet a majority vote.

Article 17

A Regency shall be instituted in conformity with the provisions of the Royal House Law.

Article 17, section 2

The Regent shall exercise the powers appertaining to the High Regeant in His name.

Chapter 2, The duties of the Royal Court and the heirs of the throne

Article 18

Members of the Royal Court and Royal Family shall act in ways that does not shame the name of the Royal Family, they shall not swear, and they must follow Reian etiquette when appropriate.

Article 19

The immediate heirs to the throne shall study, and understand the constitution in it's full from a young Age, and show proficiency in matters regarding the constitution.

Article 20

The Royal Court and family are to be considered a separate entity from the Government, thus they constitutionally hold no legal power higher than what is vested into the average citizen unless holding a government position that entails legal powers, and duties that require and entail such.

Article 21

The Royal Court and family, including the high regeants themselves hold the right to romantic relationships not constricted towards race, sex, and religion, so long as the relationship itself is true and not a mere form legal, business, monetary, financial, and or political binding.

Article 21, section 2

The Royal Court and family shall maintain and uphold the sancity of marriage, no single member of the Royal Court and family shall have marriages for the sole purpose of a legal, business, monetary, financial, and or political bind.

Chapter 3, The Rights and duties of Subjects

From here on forward, Reian Citizens, whether natural or naturalized, shall be referred to as subject or subjects interchangeably

Article 22

The conditions necessary for being a Reian citizen, whether natural or naturalized, subject shall be determined by law.

Article 23

Reian subjects may, according to qualifications determined in laws or ordinances, be appointed to civil or military or any other public offices equally.

Article 24

Reian subjects are amenable to service in the Army or Navy, according to the provisions of law.

Article 25

Reian subjects are amenable to the duty of paying taxes, according to the provisions of law.

Article 26

Reian subjects shall have the liberty of abode and of changing the same within the limits of the law.

Article 27

No Reian subject shall be arrested, detained, tried or punished, without prior notice and a warrant, in accordance to the law.


Article 27, section 2

No Reian Subject shall be prosecuted for an act which does not constitute a crime under the law in force at the time it was committed, nor shall he or she be placed in double jeopardy.

Article 27, section 2

No restrictions shall be imposed upon the political rights of any citizen, nor shall any person be deprived of property rights by means of retroactive legislation.

Article 27, section 3

No Reian subjects shall suffer unfavorable treatment on account of an act not of his own doing but committed by a relative.

Article 28

No Reian subject shall be deprived of his right to a fair trial by the court at any level determined by law.

Article 29

Except in the cases provided for in the law, the house and or property of no Reian subject shall be entered or searched without the subject in lawful ownership's consent.

Article 30

Except in the cases mentioned in the law, the secrecy of the letters, and messages, whether virtual or physical of every  subject shall remain inviolate.

Article 30, section 2

The privacy of communication and correspondence shall be inviolable except upon lawful order of the court, or when public safety or order requires otherwise as prescribed by law.

Article 30, section 3

Any evidence obtained in violation of this or the preceding section however is deemed admissable for any purpose in any proceeding, however an investigation will he held seeking the violator of privacies regarding communications and duly punished according to the law.

Article 30, section 4

No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech, of expression, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the government for redress of grievances.

Article 31

The right to hold, own, maintain, and purchase property, in lawful ownership of every Reian subject shall remain inviolate.

Article 31, section 2

Measures necessary to be taken for the public benefit shall be any provided for by law.

Article 32

Reian subjects shall, within limits not prejudicial to peace and order, and not antagonistic to their duties as subjects, enjoy freedom of religious belief, and shall not be punished for such.

Article 33

Reian subjects shall enjoy the liberty of speech, writing, publication, public meetings and associations.

Article 34

Reian subjects may present petitions, by observing the proper forms of respect, and by complying with the rules specially provided for the same.

Article 35

The provisions contained in the present Chapter shall not affect the exercises of the powers appertaining to the High Regeant, in times of war or in cases of a national emergency.

Article 36

No Reian subject shall be compelled to testify against himself in criminal cases, wherein the right from self incrimination shall remain inviolate.

Article 36, Section 2

Warrants issued by a judge through due procedures upon the request of a prosecutor shall be presented in case of arrest, detention, seizure or search: Provided, That in a case where a criminal suspect is a apprehended flagrante delicto, or where there is danger that a person suspected of committing a crime punishable by imprisonment of three years or more may escape or destroy evidence, investigative authorities may request an ex post facto warrant.

Article 36, section 3

Any Reian subject who is arrested or detained shall have the right to prompt assistance of counsel. When a criminal defendant is unable to secure counsel by his own efforts, the State shall assign counsel for the defendant as prescribed by law.

Article 36, section 4

No Subject shall be arrested or detained without being informed of the reason therefor and of his right to assistance of counsel. The family, etc., as designated by law, of a person arrested or detained shall be notified without delay of the reason for and the time and place of the arrest or detention.

Article 36, section 5

A Reian subject who is arrested or detained, shall have the right to request the court to review the legality of the arrest or detention.

Article 36, section 6

In a case where a confession is deemed to have been made against a defendant's will due to torture, violence, intimidation, unduly prolonged arrest, deceit or etc., or in a case where a confession is the only evidence against a defendant in a formal trial, such a confession shall not be admitted as evidence of guilt, nor shall a defendant be punished by reason of such a confession.

Article 38

Upon the lawful arrest of a subject, he or she shall be informed of their right to remain silent, and may remain silent until required to make a statement in court.

Article 39

Each and every one of the provisions contained in the preceding Articles of the present Chapter, that are not in conflict with the laws or the rules and discipline of the Army, Air-Force, and Navy, shall apply to the officers and men of the Army Air-Force, and of the Navy.

Article 40

All Reian Subjects, shall have the right to vote under the conditions as prescribed by law.

Article 41

All Reian Subjects shall have the right to hold public office under the conditions as prescribed by law.

Article 42

All Reian Subjects shall have the right to petition in writing to any governmental agency under the conditions as prescribed by law.

Article 42, section 2

The State shall be obligated to examine all such petitions.

Article 43

All Reian subjects shall have the right to be tried in conformity with the law by judges qualified under the Constitution and the law.

Article 43, section 2

Citizens who are not on active military service or employees of the military forces shall not be tried by a court martial within the territory of the High Kingdom of Reia, except in case of crimes as prescribed by law involving important classified military information, sentinels, sentry posts, the supply of harmful food and beverages, prisoners of war and military articles and facilities and in the case of the proclamation of extraordinary martial law.

Article 43, section 3

All Reian Subjects shall have the right to a speedy trial. The accused shall have the right to a public trial without delay in the absence of justifiable reasons to the contrary.

Article 43, section 4

The accused shall be presumed innocent until a judgment of guilt has been pronounced.

Article 43, section 5

A victim of a crime shall be entitled to make a statement during the proceedings of the trial of the case involved as under the conditions prescribed by law.

Article 44

In a case where a criminal suspect or an accused person who has been placed under detention is not indicted as provided by law or is acquitted by a court, he shall be entitled to claim just compensation from the State under the conditions as prescribed by law.

Article 45

In case a person has sustained damages by an unlawful act committed by a public official in the course of official duties, he may claim just compensation from the State or public organization under the conditions as prescribed by law. In this case, the public official concerned shall not be immune from liabilities.

Article 45, section 2

In case a person on active military service or an employee of the military forces, a police official or others as prescribed by law sustains damages in connection with the performance of official duties such as combat action, drill and so forth, he shall not be entitled to a claim against the State or public organization on the grounds of unlawful acts committed by public officials in the course of official duties, but shall be entitled only to compensations as prescribed by law.

Article 46

Reian subjects who have suffered bodily injury or death due to criminal acts of others may receive aid from the State under the conditions as prescribed by law.

Article 47

The right of the Reian Subjects to information on matters of public concern shall be recognized. Access to official records, and to documents, and papers pertaining to official acts, transactions, or decisions, as well as to government research data used as basis for policy development, shall be afforded the subject, subject to such limitations as may be provided by law.

Article 48

The right of the Reian Subject, including those employed in the public and private sectors, to form unions, associations, or societies for purposes not contrary to law shall not be abridged, and is therefore inviolable.

Article 49

Private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation.

Article 50

No law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be passed.

Article 51

Free access to the courts and quasi-judicial bodies and adequate legal assistance shall not be denied to any person by reason of poverty.

Article 52

All public officials are servants of the entire people and responsible to the people.

Article 52, section 2

The status and political impartiality of public officials is guaranteed as prescribed by law.

Chapter 4, Declaration of Principles and State Policies

Article 53

The High Kingdom of Reia is at it's core, a constitutional Monarchy, however it shall uphold the honor and freedoms provided by a democracy and shall maintain the separate bodies, unrelated to the Royal Court and family still in service of the State's subjects. The Sovereignty resides in the people and the High Regeant, however government authority emanates from the People.

Article 53, section 2

The High Kingdom shall maintain a form of Constitutional Monarchism with liberal democracy for our descendents, time irreverent. This section is inviolable.

Article 54

The High Kingdom of Reia renounces war as an instrument of national policy, adopts the generally accepted principles of international law as part of the law of the land and adheres to the policy of peace, equality, justice, freedom, cooperation, and amity with all nations.

Article 55

Civilian authority is, at all times, supreme over the military. The Royal Armed Forces of the High Kingdom of Reia is the protector of the people and the State. Its goal is to secure the sovereignty of the State and the integrity of the national territory.

Article 56

The prime duty of the Government is to serve and protect it's Subjects. The Government may call upon the people to defend the State and, in the fulfillment thereof, all citizens may be required, under conditions provided by law, to render personal military or civil service.

Article 57

The maintenance of peace and order, the protection of life, liberty, and property, and the promotion of the general welfare are essential for the enjoyment by all the people of the blessings of democracy.

Article 58

The separation of Church and State shall be inviolable.

Article 59, section 2

In support of Article 58, no law shall be mandated, and enforced, created to entertain the laws within a church, laws using text from the church or religion as a basis shall be deemed inadmissible.

Article 60

The State shall pursue an independent foreign policy. In its relations with other states the paramount consideration shall be national sovereignty, territorial integrity, national interest, and the right to self-determination.

Article 61

The High Kingdom of Reia, consistent with the national interest, adopts and pursues a policy of freedom from chemical weapons weapons in its territory.

Article 62

The State shall promote a just and dynamic social order that will ensure the prosperity and independence of the nation and free the people from poverty through policies that provide adequate social services, promote full employment, a rising standard of living, and an improved quality of life for all.

Article 63

The State shall promote social justice in all phases of national development.

Article 64

The State values the dignity of every human person and guarantees full respect for human rights.

Article 65

The State recognizes the sanctity of family life and shall protect and strengthen the family as a basic autonomous social institution. The natural and primary right and duty of parents in the rearing of the youth for civic efficiency and the development of moral characters and economic freedoms

Article 66

The State recognizes the vital role of the youth in nation-building and shall promote and protect their physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual, and social well-being. It shall inculcate in the youth patriotism and nationalism, and encourage their involvement in public and civic affairs.

Article 67

The State recognizes the role of all people, regardless of color, race, ethnicity, religion, sexuality, in nation-building, and shall ensure the fundamental equality before the law.

Article 68

The State shall protect and promote the right to health of the people and instill health consciousness among them.

Article 69

The State shall protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature.

Article 70

The State shall give priority to education, science and technology, arts, culture, and sports to foster patriotism and nationalism, accelerate social progress, and promote total human liberation and development.

Article 71

The State affirms labor as a social economic force. It shall protect the rights of workers and promote their welfare.

Article 72

The State shall develop a self-reliant and independent national economy effectively controlled by the Subjects of the High Kingdom.

Article 73

The State recognizes the indispensable role of the private sector, encourages private enterprise, and provides incentives to needed investments.

Article 74

The State shall promote comprehensive rural development and agrarian reform.

Article 75

The State recognizes and promotes the rights of indigenous cultural communities within the framework of national unity and development.

Article 76

The State shall encourage non-governmental, community-based, or sectoral organizations that promote the welfare of the nation.

Article 77

The State recognizes the vital role of communication and information in nation-building, and shall ensure that communication and information technologies remain at the very least, be at par with the world median, but encourage appropriate industries to lead the world industry in that regard.

Article 88

The State shall ensure the autonomy of local governments, so long as adherent to National laws.

Article 89

The State shall guarantee equal access to opportunities for public service, and prohibit political dynasties within the public government as may be defined by law.

Article 90

The State shall maintain honesty and integrity in the public service and take positive and effective measures against graft and corruption.

Article 91

Subject to reasonable conditions prescribed by law, the State adopts and implements a policy of full public disclosure of all its transactions involving public interest.

Chapter 5, Declaration of Territory of the High Kingdom of Reia

Article 92

The national territory comprises the Reian Plains, Mountains, Plateaus, Hills, and whatever may fall in between, with all the islands and waters embraced therein, and all other territories over which the High Kingdom of Reia has sovereignty or jurisdiction over, consisting of its terrestrial, fluvial, and aerial domains, including its territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, the insular shelves, and other submarine areas. The waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the High Kingdom of Reia, regardless of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal waters of the High Kingdom of Reia.

Article 93

The aforementioned and to be mentioned set of rules, mandates, and promulgations made on this Constitution shall forever apply to any person so long as he or she is within the territories of the High Kingdom of Reia.

Chapter 6, The duties and Powers of the Legislature

Article 94

The legislative power shall be vested in the House of Representatives of the High Kingdom of Reia which shall consist of a High Council and Congress, except to the extent reserved to the people by the provision on initiative and referendum.

Article 95

The High Council shall be composed of twenty-four Councilorss who shall be elected at large by the qualified voters of the High Kingdom of Reia, as may be provided by law.

Article 95, Section ,2

No person shall be a Councilor unless he is a natural-born citizen of the High Kingdom of Reia, and, on the day of the election, is at least thirty-five years of age, able to read and write, a registered voter, and a resident of the High Kingdom of Reia for not less than two years immediately preceding the day of the election.

Article 95, section 3

The term of office of the Councilors shall be six years and shall commence, unless otherwise provided by law, at noon on the thirtieth day of June next following their election.

Article 95, section 4

No Councilor shall serve for more than two consecutive terms. Voluntary renunciation of the office for any length of time shall not be considered as an interruption in the continuity of his service for the full term for which he was elected.

Article 96

The House of Representatives shall be composed of not more than two hundred and fifty members, unless otherwise fixed by law, who shall be elected from legislative districts apportioned among the Prefectures, cities, and the Metropolitan Tanjō area in accordance with the number of their respective inhabitants, and on the basis of a uniform and progressive ratio, and those who, as provided by law, shall be elected through a party-list system of registered national, regional, and sectoral parties or organizations.

Article 96, section 2

The party-list representatives shall constitute twenty per centum of the total number of representatives including those under the party list. For three consecutive terms after the ratification of this Constitution, one-half of the seats allocated to party-list representatives shall be filled, as provided by law, by selection or election from the labor, peasant, urban poor, indigenous cultural communities, women, youth, and such other sectors as may be provided by law, except the religious sector.

Article 97

Each legislative district shall comprise, as far as practicable, contiguous, compact and adjacent territory. Each city with a population of at least two hundred fifty thousand, or each prefecture, shall have at least one representative.

Article 97, section 2

Within three years following the return of every census, the Congress shall make a reapportionment of legislative districts based on the standards provided in this section.

Article 98

No person shall be a Member of the House of Representatives unless he is a natural-born citizen of the the High Kingdom of Reia and, on the day of the election, is at least twenty-five years of age, able to read and write, and, except the party-list representatives, a registered voter in the district in which he shall be elected, and a resident thereof for a period of not less than one year immediately preceding the day of the election.

=Article 98, section 2

The Members of the House of Representatives shall be elected for a term of three years which shall begin, unless otherwise provided by law, at noon on the thirtieth day of June next following their election.

Article 98, section 3

No member of the House of Representatives shall serve for more than three consecutive terms. Voluntary renunciation of the office for any length of time shall not be considered as an interruption in the continuity of his service for the full term for which he was elected.

Article 99

Unless otherwise provided by law, the regular election of the Councilors and the Members of the House of Representatives shall be held on the second Monday of May.

Article 99, section 2

In case of vacancy in the High Council or in the House of Representatives, a special election may be called to fill such vacancy in the manner prescribed by law, but the Senator or Member of the House of Representatives thus elected shall serve only for the unexpired term.

Article 100

The salaries of Councilors and Members of the House of Representatives shall be determined by law. No increase in said compensation shall take effect until after the expiration of the full term of all the Members of the Senate and the House of Representatives approving such increase.

Article 101

A Councilor or Member of the House of Representatives shall, in all offenses punishable by not more than 100 years imprisonment, be privileged from arrest while the Congress is in session. No Member shall be questioned nor be held liable in any other place for any speech or debate in the Congress or in any committee thereof, however may immediately be done so after session.

Article 102

All Members of the High Council and the House of Representatives shall, upon assumption of office, make a full disclosure of their financial and business interests. They shall notify the House concerned of a potential conflict of interest that may arise from the filing of a proposed legislation of which they are authors.

Article 103

No Councilor or Member of the House of Representatives may hold any other office or employment in the Government, or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries, during his term without forfeiting his seat. Neither shall he be appointed to any office which may have been created or the emoluments thereof increased during the term for which he was elected.

Article 104

No Councilor or Member of the House of Representatives may personally appear as counsel before any court of justice or before the Electoral Tribunals, or quasi-judicial and other administrative bodies. Neither shall he, directly or indirectly, be interested financially in any contract with, or in any franchise or special privilege granted by the Government, or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including any government-owned or controlled corporation, or its subsidiary, during his term of office. He shall not intervene in any matter before any office of the Government for his pecuniary benefit or where he may be called upon to act on account of his office.

Article 105

The Congress shall convene once every year on the fourth Monday of July for its regular session, unless a different date is fixed by law, and shall continue to be in session for such number of days as it may determine until thirty days before the opening of its next regular session, exclusive of Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays. The President may call a special session at any time.

Article 106

The High Council shall elect its Grand Councilor and the House of Representatives its Speaker, by a majority vote of all its respective Members.

Each House shall choose such other officers as it may deem necessary.

Article 106, section 2

A majority of each House shall constitute a quorum to do business, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day and may compel the attendance of absent Members in such manner, and under such penalties, as such House may provide.

Article 106, section 3

Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds of all its Members, suspend or expel a Member. A penalty of suspension, when imposed, shall not exceed sixty days.

Article 106, section 4

Each House shall keep a Journal of its proceedings, and once every 75 days publish the same, excepting such parts as may, in its judgment, affect national security; and the yeas and nays on any question shall, at the request of one-fifth of the Members present, be entered in the Journal.

Each House shall also keep a Record of its proceedings.

Article 106, section 5

Neither House during the sessions of the Congress shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Article 107

The High Council and the House of Representatives shall each have an Electoral Tribunal which shall be the sole judge of all contests relating to the election, returns, and qualifications of their respective Members. Each Electoral Tribunal shall be composed of nine Members, three of whom shall be Justices of the High Grand Court to be designated by the Grand Chief Justice, and the remaining six shall be Members of the High Council or the House of Representatives, as the case may be, who shall be chosen on the basis of proportional representation from the political parties and the parties or organizations registered under the party-list system represented therein. The senior Justice in the Electoral Tribunal shall be its Chairman.

Article 108

There shall be a Commission on Appointments consisting of the Grand Councilor, as ex officio Chairman, twelve Councilors and twelve Members of the House of Representatives, elected by each House on the basis of proportional representation from the political parties and parties or organizations registered under the party-list system represented therein. The Chairman of the Commission shall not vote, except in case of a tie. The Commission shall act on all appointments submitted to it within thirty session days of the Congress from their submission. The Commission shall rule by a majority vote of all the Members.

Article 109

The Electoral Tribunals and the Commission on Appointments shall be constituted within thirty days after the High Council and the House of Representatives shall have been organized with the election of the Grand Councilor and the Speaker. The Commission on Appointments shall meet only while the Congress is in session, at the call of its Chairman or a majority of all its Members, to discharge such powers and functions as are herein conferred upon it.

Article 110

The records and books of accounts of the Congress shall be preserved and be open to the public in accordance with law, and such books shall be audited by the Commission on Audit which shall publish annually an itemized list of amounts paid to and expenses incurred for each Member.

Article 111

The High Council or the House of Representatives or any of its respective committees may conduct inquiries in aid of legislation in accordance with its duly published rules of procedure. The rights of persons appearing in or affected by such inquiries shall be respected.

Article 112

The heads of departments may upon their own initiative, with the consent of the High Regeant and Prime Minister, or upon the request of either House, as the rules of each House shall provide, appear before and be heard by such House on any matter pertaining to their departments. Written questions shall be submitted to the Grand Councilor or the Speaker of the House of Representatives at least three days before their scheduled appearance. Interpellations shall not be limited to written questions, but may cover matters related thereto. When the security of the State or the public interest so requires and the President so states in writing, the appearance shall be conducted in executive session.


Article 113

In times of war or other national emergency, the Congress may, by law, authorize the High Regeant and Prime Minister, for a limited period and subject to such restrictions as it may prescribe, to exercise powers necessary and proper to carry out a declared national policy. Unless sooner withdrawn by resolution of the Congress, such powers shall cease upon the next adjournment thereof.

Article 114

All appropriation, revenue or tariff bills, bills authorizing increase of the public debt, bills of local application, and private bills shall originate exclusively in the House of Representatives, but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments.

Article 115

The Congress may not increase the appropriations recommended by the Prime Minister for the operation of the Government as specified in the budget. The form, content, and manner of preparation of the budget shall be prescribed by law.

Article 115, section 2

No provision or enactment shall be embraced in the general appropriations bill unless it relates specifically to some particular appropriation therein. Any such provision or enactment shall be limited in its operation to the appropriation to which it relates.

Article 115, section 3

The procedure in approving appropriations for the Congress shall strictly follow the procedure for approving appropriations for other departments and agencies.

Article 115, section 3

A special appropriations bill shall specify the purpose for which it is intended, and shall be supported by funds actually available as certified by the National Treasurer, or to be raised by a corresponding revenue proposed therein.

Article 115, section 4

No law shall be passed authorizing any transfer of appropriations; however, the High Regeant, the Prime Minister, Grand Councilor the High Council, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Grand Chief Justice of the High Grand Court, and the heads of Constitutional Commissions may, by law, be authorized to augment any item in the general appropriations law for their respective offices from savings in other items of their respective appropriations.

Article 115, section 5

Discretionary funds appropriated for particular officials shall be disbursed only for public purposes to be supported by appropriate vouchers and subject to such guidelines as may be prescribed by law.

Article 115, section 2

Touch and hold a clip to pin it. Unpinned clips will be deleted after 1 hour. If, by the end of any fiscal year, the Congress shall have failed to pass the general appropriations bill for the ensuing fiscal year, the general appropriations law for the preceding fiscal year shall be deemed reenacted and shall remain in force and effect until the general appropriations bill is passed by the Congress.

Article 116

Every bill passed by the Congress shall embrace only one subject which shall be expressed in the title thereof.

Article 116, section 2

No bill passed by either House shall become a law unless it has passed three readings on separate days, and printed copies thereof in its final form have been distributed to its Members three days before its passage, except when the President certifies to the necessity of its immediate enactment to meet a public calamity or emergency. Upon the last reading of a bill, no amendment thereto shall be allowed, and the vote thereon shall be taken immediately thereafter, and the yeas and nays entered in the Journal.

Article 117

Every bill passed by the Congress shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the Prime Minister, and then the Prime Minister shall present it to the High Regeant. If the Prime Minister approves he same, he shall sign it; otherwise, he shall veto and inform the High Regeant of his or her Decision, if the High Regeant objects to the Prime Minister's veto, the law may pass. If not it shall return the same with the two's objections to the House where it originated, which shall enter the objections at large in its Journal and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, two-thirds of all the Members of such House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of all the Members of that House, it shall become a law. In all such cases, the votes of each House shall be determined by yeas or nays, and the names of the Members voting for or against shall be entered in its Journal. The High Regeant and Prime Minister shall communicate their veto of any bill to the House where it originated within thirty days after the date of receipt thereof; otherwise, it shall become a law as if he had signed it.

Article 118

The High Regeant shall have the power to veto any particular item or items in an appropriation, revenue, or tariff bill, but the veto shall not affect the item or items to which he does not object.

Article 119

The rule of taxation shall be uniform and equitable. The Congress shall evolve a progressive system of taxation.

Article 120

The Congress may, by law, authorize the High Regeant to fix within specified limits, and subject to such limitations and restrictions as it may impose, tariff rates, import and export quotas, tonnage and wharfage dues, and other duties or imposts within the framework of the national development program of the Government.

Article 121

Charitable institutions, churches and parsonages or convents appurtenant thereto, mosques, non-profit cemeteries, and all lands, buildings, and improvements, actually, directly, and exclusively used for religious, charitable, or educational purposes shall be exempt from taxation.

Article 122

No law granting any tax exemption shall be passed without the concurrence of a majority of all the Members of the Congress.

Article 123

No money shall be paid out of the Treasury except in pursuance of an appropriation made by law.

=Article 123, section 2

No public money or property shall be appropriated, applied, paid, or employed, directly or indirectly, for the use, benefit, or support of any sect, church, denomination, sectarian institution, or system of religion, or of any priest, preacher, minister, or other religious teacher, or dignitary as such, except when such priest, preacher, minister, or dignitary is assigned to the armed forces, or to any penal institution, or government orphanage or leprosarium.

Article 123, section 3

All money collected on any tax levied for a special purpose shall be treated as a special fund and paid out for such purpose only. If the purpose for which a special fund was created has been fulfilled or abandoned, the balance, if any, shall be transferred to the general funds of the Government.

Article 124

No law shall be passed increasing the appellate jurisdiction of the High Grand Court as provided in this Constitution without its advice and concurrence.

Article 125

The Congress shall, as early as possible, provide for a system of initiative and referendum, and the exceptions therefrom, whereby the people can directly propose and enact laws or approve or reject any act or law or part thereof passed by the Congress or local legislative body after the registration of a petition therefor signed by at least ten per centum of the total number of registered voters, of which every legislative district must be represented by at least three per centum of the registered voters thereof.

Chapter 7, Citizenship

The following are citizens of the High Kingdom of Reia:

Article 126

Those who are citizens of the High Kingdom of Reia at the time of the adoption of this Constitution;

Article 126, section 2

Those whose fathers or mothers are citizens of Reia;

Article 126, section 3

Those born before January 17, 1987 of Reian mothers, who elect citizenship upon reaching the age of majority; and

Article 127

Those who are naturalized in accordance with law.

Article 128

Natural-born citizens are those who are citizens of the High Kingdom of Reia from birth without having to perform any act to acquire or perfect their Reian citizenship. Those who elect Reian citizenship in accordance with paragraph Article 126, Section 1 hereof shall be deemed natural-born citizens.

Article 129

Reian citizenship may be lost or reacquired in the manner provided by law.

Article 130

Citizens of the High Kingdom of Reia who marry aliens shall retain their citizenship, unless by their act or omission they are deemed, under the law, to have renounced it.

Article 131

Dual allegiance of citizens is inimical to the national interest and shall be dealt with by law.