|Part of the Creeperian Conflicts|
(clockqise from top left)
Creeperian Army soldiers in the Battle of Tecoluca in 1989, a Creeperian Army vehicle in Sonsoante in 1996, FMLN guerillas in 1983, the aftermath of the 2004 Chalatenango Bombings.
|Commanders and leaders|
Augusto Cabañeras Gutiérrez
Gustavo León Carpio
José Peralta Azurdia
Lázaro Chacón González
Cayetano Carpio Cerén|
Hugo Osorio Bonilla
Fucando Guardado Mila
Rubén Zamora Rivas
Gustavo Duarte Carpio
Raúl Lorenzana Méndez
José Koné Ochelo
Francisco Bajamande Rodríguez
|300,000||Unknown (millions self-claim)||13,500–14,000|
|Casualties and losses|
|51,381 dead||43,194+ dead||Unknown|
|1.4 million dead|
|x - First phase, y - Second phase, z - Third phase|
The Castillianan Insurgency (Creeperian Spanish: Insurrección Castilliañero, Castillianan Spanish: Insurxencia Castilliañero) is an ongoing civil military conflict which is raging in Creeperopolis between the government and the Militarist Front for National Liberation. The war has claimed 1.4 million lives since it started in 1980.
The insurgency started on October 10, 1980, when left-wing Castillianans rallied under Farabundo Martí Rodríguez and the Militarist Front for National Liberation for the independence of the departments of Castilliano, San Juan, San Pablo, Santa María, and Sonsonate, all departments associated with the former Kingdom of Castilliano. The Castillianan National Council of Reorganization was established and declared independence from Creeperopolis with Martí Rodríguez as President.
The Battle of Villacrés and Massacre of Villacrés began the insurgency and the war became a guerilla war with the FMLN relying on influence and intimidation to maintain revelance. In 2000, the Creeperian government and Castillianan rebels reached a ceasefire agreement and the Castillianan National Council of Reorganization effectively controlled the five departments de facto. However, after the 2003 Creeperian coup d'état, the government reengaged the war on July 2, 2003, and by 2006, had recaptured most of the territory held by the rebel government. From 2006 to 2020, the rebels continued their guerrilla war until a peace treaty was signed and dissolved the FMLN and rebel government.
On September 2, 2020, the FMLN reformed and declared the Castillianan Republic as an independent nation, beginning the third phase of the insurgency. The Neo-Saelicists declared the Castillianan State as an independent nation to challenge the FMLN on September 3, 2020, and to officially declare their opposition to the Creeperian government.
Much of the conflict is fueled by ethnic tensions between the Creeperans and the Castillianans.
- 1 Background
- 2 First Phase
- 3 Second Phase
- 4 Third Phase
- 5 Combatants
- 6 Effects in Castilliano
- 7 Effects Internationally
- 8 See Also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
The Kingdom of Castilliano was established on January 17, 1198, by Emmanuel I and existed as a monarchy and an independent state until December 25, 1949, when Castilliano was annexed into the Holy Traditionalist Empire of Creeperopolis following a questionable annexation referendum which was sponsored by the Creeperian government and the government of then Prime Minister, Efraín Carballar Fontirroig-Dávalos. The referrendum was held on December 1, 1949, with 95% voting in favor of annexation. The results were accepted by the ruling pro-Creeperian Castillianan Coalition of Autonomous Rights (CCDA).
Supporters of the CCDA largely supported annexation into Creeperopolis but many who supported the illegial political parties of the Coalition of the United Social Left (CISX), the National Centrist Republican Party (PRCN), and the Liberal Socialist Party (PSL), mostly opposed annexation and demonstated their frustration of the results in the streets of Chalatenango. Prime Minister Carballar Fontirroig-Dávalos had the Army crackdown on the demonstrations and the annexation went ahead.
Abel Ureña Chicote, Joaquín Curbelo Rubio, and Eusebio Otálora Moledo, former leaders of the Coalition of the United Social Left, established the Union of Castillianan Oppostion Forces (XFOC) on December 2, 1949, in reaction to the referrendum results and claimed to be the official opposition force to the government of Carballar Fontirroig-Dávalos. The Prime Minister denounced the group and labeled them as traitors and apostates. When annexation went into effect, XFOC declared that it did not recognize the annexation as legal nor binding. As a result, the Creeperian government declared the group a terrorist organization and XFOC went underground. The Creeperian government hunted down the group's leaders, with Ureña Chicote being gunned down by the National Intelligence Directorate (DINA) in the streets of San Pablo in 1952, Curbelo Rubio being blown up by a car bomb planted by the DINA in Santa María in 1958, and Otálora Moledo being sniped by an unknown sniper, presumably from the DINA, in Ciutat dels Àngels in 1960. The group's leadership went into hiding but remained outspokenly opposed to Castillianan integration to Creeperopolis. Ureña Chicote, Curbelo Rubio, and Otálora Moledo became martyrs for the cause of Castillianan independence.
On January 17, 1961, the new leader of the XFOC, Guillermo García Justo, organized a march of 500 Castillianans in Sonsonate and the marchers peacefully marched in support of Castillianan independence. The march was attacked, however, by 200 Neo-Saelicists who had sypmathies with the Creeperian government. The fight was broken up by the Creeperian National Police. In the aftermath, 2 were killed and 14 were arrested.
García Justo arranged another march for January 17, 1962, with 3,000 demonstators. This time, 500 Neo-Saelicists engaged the marchers. The police against dispersed the crowds leaving 5 dead and 42 arrested. A third march was called for on January 17, 1963, but the police declared two days before the march that anyone who attended would be arrested. Many, fearing arrest, did not show up. Only 45 marched and all 45 were arrested. The following day, 700 Neo-Saelicists marched in Sonsonate glorifying Maximiliano Saelices Dávalos and waving the flag of the National Pro-Fatherland Front beaing the Esvástica. Around 7,000 people surrounded the Neo-Saelicits and demanded they leave but a fight errupted and the police intervened. Soldiers from the 32nd Creeperian Army garrisoned in Sonsonate were dispatched to stop the fight. The army arrested 851 people and killed 42 in addition to the 13 killed by the Neo-Salicists and counterprotestors. Sonsonate was placed under curfew for the next 7 years, only being lifted on January 17, 1970, for the Creeperian Army to march in the streets claiming to have "reconquered" the rebelling city.
García Justo was arrested by the DINA on March 17, 1964, on charges of inciting violence, inciting an insurrection, disturbing the peace, and unlawful assmbly, and was sentenced to 12 years of imprisonment. He was released on April 7, 1976, but was later found dead in his home on April 30, 1976. He was found hanging and his death was ruled a suicide but family members accuse the government of killing García Justo.
In response to the death of García Justo, thousands of Castillianans marched in the streets of Chalatenango, Nuevo San Juan, San Pablo, Santa María, and Sonsonate mounring the death of García Justo from April 30 to May 3. On May 4, the day Santiago Matadeltinianos allegedl lead the Castillianans to victory against the Deltinians at the Battle of Sahagún, tens of thousands marched in the five major cities of the former Kingdom of Castilliano demanding independence for Castilliano. Ignacio Vides Casanova, the successor of García Justo as the leader of the XFOC, lead the protestors and called for Lorenzo Gaitán Nariño, the mayor of Chalatenango, to declare independence for the entire department and spark a Castillianan Revolution for independence. For three days, the protestors held control of the streets and were mostly peaceful. On May 8, Gaitán Nariño requested the intervention of the Army and the 32nd Army dispatched soldiers to disperse the crowds and bring Chalatenango back under control. After 4 more days, the Army had secured the city and the city went into curfew, which has not been lifted since it was installed on May 12, 1976. The police dispersed the crowds in the other four cities. The protests left 21 people dead and 2,184 arrested. Vides Casanova escaped arrest by fleeing to El Salvador. He was suspected to be involved in the Salvadoran Crisis of 1976 by the DINA and he was labeled as one of Creeperopolis' most dangerous terrorists.
Early in the morning October 10, 1980, 400 Castillianans in the town of Villacrés lowered the Creeperian flag to half mast and raised the flag of the XFOC above it and the flag of Castilliano above that. They sand Castilliano Llibre, the former national anthem of the Kingdom of Castilliano. The 400 Castillianans wanted to peacefully demonstrate their anger with the Creeperian government through petty protest.
Minister of Defense Emmanuel Cabañeras Videla was made aware of the situation and he ordered the 32nd Army to "crush the revolutionaries with lethal force if necessary." The order was misunderstood as "crush the revolutionaries with lethal force, it's necessary" and an order to massacre the protestors was given. At 3:30pm SLC, 300 soldiers arrived in Villacrés and opened fore on civilians. Civilians fled but most were unable to escape the gunfire. After 44 minutes of indescriminate killing, the Army had killed 318 people and the town went quiet.
News of the massacre spread all over Castilliano and caused massive outrage. Cabañeras Videla condemned the massacre and demanded the immediate arrest of the officers who gave the orders, and most Castillianans accepted the condemnation and believed that the Creeperian government truly saw the evil of the massacre and would properly hand down punishments to its perpetrators and reparations to its victims. However, some Castillianans did not accept the condemnation. One such Castillianan who refused to accept the condemnation was Farabundo Augustín Martí Rodríguez, the Mayor of Villacrés. He personally saw the massacre unfold and he was outraged.
At 7:45pm SLC, 2 hours after the army withdrew, Farabundo Martí Rodríguez made a radiobroadcast across all of Castilliano using his authority as a mayor to interrupt Castillianan radio waves used for broadcasting music.
All Castillianans living in Castilliano, Deltino, San Pablo, Santa María, Sonsonate, we have all heard about the massacre committed by the Creeperian Army in Villacrés, where 300 innocent civilians were slaughtered for simply being Castillianan. This atrocity and crime was ordered by the tyrants in San Salvador wanting to oppress us and subdue us and assimilate us into Creeperopolis.
Do you remember the peaceful demonstrations of 1961, 1962, and 1963 that were crushed by the police and the army? Do you remember the assassination of Guillermo García Justo in 1976. Do you remember the assassiantions of Abel Ureña Chicote, Joaquín Curbelo Rubio, and Eusebio Otálora Moledo? Do you remember how the Army allied itself with the Neo-Saelicists who worship the tyrant of Castilliano?
Do you remember when we used to be a free people?
Castillianans, I call on all you to rise up and oppose the Creeperian tyrants. They are acting without the approval of the Lord and are killing his children. "You shall not kill" He told Moises, and yet, they are killing their brothers!
I, Farabundo Augustín Martí Rodríguez, the Mayor of Villacrés, hereby declare complete and total independence for all former lands of the great Kingdom of Castilliano under the banner of the Castillianan National Council of Reorganization. We will achieve total independence and once again be a free people. People of Castilliano, take up arms and fight under the banner of the Militarist Front for National Liberation.
Long live free Castilliano!— Farabundo Martí Rodríguez, October 10, 1980
Cabañeras Videla was made aware of the broadcast and called for the immediate arrest of Martí Rodríguez and pardoned the officers he ordered the arrest of. He ordered the officer to arrest Martí Rodríguez and occupy the city of Villacrés. When the Army arrived at 9:20pm SLC, they were fired upon by civilians who shouted "¡Castilliano Llibre!" The Army retreated and returned the following morning. They saw a red banner reading "FMLN" and an orange banner with the outline of Castilliano waving in the town and fought the rebels again. After 6 hours of fighting, the rebels retreated. The Army occupied the now abandoned town and burned the two flags. Marti Rodríguez fled but his message had already spread across Castilliano and the Ministry of Defense was flooded by reports of Castillianans taking up arms against the Creeperian government. The Battle of Villacrés began the first phase of the Castillanan Insurgency.
Army Crackdowns and Support for the FMLN
On October 11, Emperor Adolfo V condemned Farabundo Martí Rodríguez and ordered his immediate arrest. Newspapers across Creeperopolis condemned the actions of Martí Rodríguez and the DINA began preparing plans to find and cpture him.
The five major cities of historic Castilliano all witnessed thousands marching in the streets supporting Martí Rodríguez, holding signs reading pro-FMLN or pro-independence messages. The Ministry of Defense gave an order to all police units and military garrisons in the departments of Castilliano, San Juan, San Pablo, Santa María, and Sonsonate to arrest everyone outside in the streets protesting and to use lethal force if necessary. Throughout October and November 1980, over 10,000 people were arrested and around 300 were killed by the police or Army.
Meanwhile, the forces of the Castillianan National Council of Reorganization and the Militarist Front for National Liberation began to organize themselves into an armed militia group. Martí Rodríguez made himself President of the Castillianan National Council of Reorganization (CNCR) and the commander-in-chief of the Militarist Front for National Liberation (FMLN). Many who supported him were socialists or at leadt left-leaning which made him brand himself as a socialist front for freedom. His declaration for socialism made him come in direct opposition with the Neo-Saelicists who declared him the Enemy of Castilliano and the Neo-Saelicists swore their support for the Creeperian government.
Ignacio Vides Casanova and the Union of Castillianan Oppostion Forces declared their support for Martí Rodríguez and called upon all Castillianans to join in the cause for independence. The FMLN gained the support of Mara Salvatrucha who funded the group with weapons and money and advisors to fight the government as Mara Salvatrucha saw the FMLN as a potential ally in the Mara War. The Senvarian Liberation Front also sent the FMLN support, seeing them as an ally in the Third Senvarian Insurgency. From October 1980 to April 1982, the FMLN gained a strong foothold in the rural areas of the Castillianan departments and initiated their guerrilla war.
The FMLN was unable to raise a proper army to fight the Creeperian Army so it resorted to guerrilla tactics to wear down the Creeperian Army and save time to grow in numbers and strength to eventually overpower the Army. The guerrillas also attacked vital pieces of infrastructure such as roads, railroads, airports, bridges, and tunnels to hamper the Creeperian Army's logistics.
The Creeperian Army was unable to kill many FMLN soldiers but the FMLN had an easy time picking off Creeperian soldiers one by one using camouflage and hiding in the jungle to kill any unsuspecting soldiers. In the first five years, the Creeperian Army lost 4 men for every FMLN guerrilla killed. In 1985, the Creeperian Army cut back ground operations and let the Creeperian Air Force attack the guerrillas from the air. Helicopters flew over villages and waiting to see if the helicopter would be shot at. If it was, they would dispatch Creeperian Army soldiers to the village to crush resistance, but if it wasn't, the village was left alone.
Fighter jets dropped napalm and chemical weapons on heavily forested areas of jungle to kill as many guerrillas as possible or at least drive them out of hiding. From 1985 to 1990, this new system greatly improved the Creeperian military's effectivness and casualties fell while kills increased. By 1991, both sides had lost an equal amount. The FMLN combated the use of napalm and chemical weapons by having every guerrilla be equipped with a gas mask and having underground bases built across the countryside.
In 1988, the Militarist Nationalist Front (FRENAMI), a far-right Creeperian death squad based in Santa Ana, declared war on the FMLN and began using guerrilla tactics against the guerrillas. FRENAMI was then followed by the Movement of Organized Nationalist Action (MANO) and the Creeperian Catholic Protection Army (ECCP) later that year. Meanwhile, Neo-Saelicsts harrassed protestors in major cities.
Death of Farabundo Martí Rodríguez
The National Intelligence Directorate was doing everything in its power to locate Farabundo Martí Rodríguez and assassiante him to cut the head off of the FMLN. The DINA believed the guerrilla group would fall apart if its leader was eliminated and millions of colóns were spent in efforts to assassinate him. The DINA narrowly missed assassinating Martí Rodríguez in 1980, 1983, 1989, and 1993, but all failed. On January 26, 1995, the DINA captured Joaquín Villalobos Villa, a high ranking leader of the FMLN. The capture was kept a secret and Villalobos Villa was tortured for 2 days in an effort to make him tell the DINA where Martí Rodríguez was. He told the DINA that he was making his way to a secret FMLN base in southern San Pablo to discuss sabotage plans and that he would be there on February 1. The DINA quickly gathered a group of 20 elite soldiers from the División Negra and 6 DINA agents. The operation to assassinate Martí Rodríguez was codenamed Operation Santiago Matadeltinianos.
On February 1, 1995, Farabundo Martí Rodríguez was being driven in a camouflaged caravan in a heavily wooded area in southern San Pablo to begin preparations for a large scale sabotage campaign of Creeperian Army bases in Sonsonate and Castilliano. The DINA and División Negra were in positions along the road, ready to ambush the caravan. At 3:13pm SLC, the caravan made it to the operatives' position and the operatives opened fire on the caravan of 6 pickup trucks. FMLN guerrillas returned fire from inside the vehicles while the fifth vehicle make a frantic u-turn and attempted to flee the caravan. The operatives shot out its tires and a DINA agent identified a man feeling from the pickup truck as Martí Rodríguez. Four División Negra hunted him down while the remaining operatives fought off the caravan. After a 6 minute chase, the 4 División Negra soldiers cornered Martí Rodríguez and gunned him down, killing the leader of the FMLN. In the operation, 1 soldier was killed, 5 soldiers were injured, and 2 agents were injured. The FMLN lost all 23 guerrilla soldiers and 5 commanders, including Martí Rodríguez.
The operatives burned the pickup trucks and the bodies except Martí Rodríguez's which they brought back with them. Emperor Romero III announced to the nation at 8:00pm SST that Farabundo Martí Rodríguez was killed. The next day, his body was paraded around the streets of San Salvador. Villalobos Villa was later executed on February 4.
The FMLN was outraged at the news of Martí Rodríguez's death. Morale was crushed but Schafik Handal López, Martí Rodríguez's second-in-command, rallied the guerrillas and swore to take revenge on the government. From 1995 to 2000, the FMLN assassianted 28 mayors across the Castillianan departments who had previously antagonized the FMLN.
Emperor Romero III died on October 16, 1999. His brother, Alfonso VI, ascended to the throne and ushered in a period in Creeperian history known as the October 16 Regime, more commonly known as the Alfonsisto. The period was marked by totalitarian rule and neglect for the Creeperian population.
On January 1, 2000, Alfonso VI signed a historic cease fire with Mara Salvatrucha where the Creeperian government promised to no longer arrest members of the gang nor execute any gang members in exchange for a cessation in the criminal activities of the gang. The cease fire was extremely unpopular with the citizens since Mara Salvatrucha continued to commit crimes. Many called for a coup but those who did were arrested and forcibly disappeared. The ceasefire brought a brief end to the Mara War and Mara Salvatrucha had free reign to do what it wanted in Creeperopolis from 2000 to 2003.
The FMLN sought to reach a similar agreement with Alfonso VI to solidify Castillianan independence. On May 17, 2000, Schafik Handal López and Alfonso VI met and signed the Treaty of Adolfosburg. The treaty gave the Castillianan National Council of Reorganization de facto control over all of the Castillianan departments and mde the FMLN the legal military wing of the Castillianan National Council of Reorganization with Schafik Handal López as President. In exchange, the Castillianan National Council of Reorganization agreed to remain a part of Creeperopolis for five more years when the Castillianan departments would have a free and fair referendum on wether Castilliano sould gain independence, remain a part of Creeperopolis, or remain a part of Creeperopolis but with greater autonomy. The treaty went into effect that day and all Creeperian Army forces withdrew from the Castillianan departments entirely on August 3, 2000.
The Ministry of Defense was outraged, as was the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Ministry of Intelligence. Civilians across Creeperopolis protested Alfonso VI effectively giving up a large portion of Creeperian territory.
The Castillianan National Council of Reorganization took advantage of the absence of the Creeperian Army and immediately began to targed Neo-Saelicists using the FMLN which had been organized into a proper Army. February 1 was declared as a national day of mourning for Farabundo Martí Rodríguez and the death squads were driven out of Castilliano.
Coup and Crisis
Beginning in February 2003, Supreme Caudillo Augusto Cabañeras Gutiérrez, Chief Admiral José Guerrero López, and Chief General Felipe Cambeiro Cavallería began meeting in secret to discuss a possible plot to overthrow the regime. The three approached the eldest son of Alfonso VI, Grand Prince Alexander Martínez Hernández, and asked him if he wished to join in on the plot to depose his father. After a large bribe and promises of power, Alexander Martínez Hernández joined aboard the plot. Each commander spoke to their respective soldiers to recruit them to the coup. After the military itself was brought onboard, a date was scheduled: June 18, 2003, would be the day the Creeperian Armed Forces overthrow the government of the Holy Traditionalist Empire of Creeperopolis.
The coup to topple the totalitarian regime of Alfonso VI began on the command of Augusto Cabañeras Gutiérrez at 9:11am, San Salvador Time (SST), on June 18, 2003. The coup started with the I and II Creeperian Army Corps moving into positions to surround the city of San Salvador to prevent Alfonso VI escaping via land, followed by the III through IX Creeperian Army Corps setting up offensive positions in the city near the San Salvador Imperial Palace. The VII Creeperian Army Corps was stationed at the Alfonso I Martínez International Aiport. The División Negra, the elite of the Creeperian Army, was ordered to surround the Imperial Palace and to prepare for a storming of the Palace.
The V Creeperian Army Corps was ordered to begin the artillery shelling of the Imperial Palace at 9:58am. At 10:00am, the Army siezed a radio station in San Salvador and sent a broadcast to the nation saying:
"Do not fear faithful Creeperans. This is not a malicious nor foreign nor [Senvarian] takeover of the Fatherland or toppling of the government. Instead, the Armed Forces of the [Creeperian] Fatherland and the [Creeperian Catholic] Church have witnessed the totalitarianism of the regime of Alfonso VI. Under the guide of the Lord God, we are removing this wicked government from power and are installing a truthful, honest, and benevolent government, a new Emperor on the Imperial throne from the line of Martínez. Long live Creeperopolis! Long live the Fatherland! Long live God!"
The Army was then ordered to storm the Palace and to offer no quarter to the Imperial Guards who have "betrayed the Fatherland" (after the Air Force and artillery completed bombing the Palace). The guards were ruthlessly massacred by the Army, with an estimated 300 guards being slaughtered.
Following the coup, the conspirators assessed that 17 of their men died in the storming of the palace. Meanwhile, all 300 of the Imperial Guards and both Alfonso VI and Figueroa Molina were either killed or committed suicide. The death of Alfonso VI allowed his son, Alexander II, to ascend to the Imperial throne of Creeperopolis. After the success of the coup and the death of his father, Alexander II rose to the Imperial throne and became the Emperor of Creeperopolis and the Creeperans, Holy Protector of the State of the Church, Emperor of El Salvador, King of Senvar, King of Atlántida, and King of Castilliano.
During Alfonso VI's regime, he installed many cronies and loyalists into positions of power. As Chief of the DINA, Cabañeras Gutiérrez used his powers in the secret police to arrest more than 80,000 people, with 5,200 to 8,200 being executed, and tens of thousands more being tortured. The purge was the largest in Creeperian history.
Immediately after the coup, Alexander II, with the support of Augusto Cabañeras Gutiérrez, declared that there will no longer be a cease fire with Mara Salvatrucha and that gang members will begin to be arrested again and that executions would resume. Mara Salvatrucha was enraged and immediately protested the announcement by carrying out several attacks across Creeperopolis in 2003. Martial law was imposed across the country following the coup and the attacks. The continuation of the Mara War concerned CNCR leadership as they were worried the Creeperian government would target them next.
On July 2, 2003, Alexander II and Augusto Cabañeras Gutiérrez ordered the immedaite surrender of power of the CNCR. When Schafik Handal López refused, Augusto Cabañeras Gutiérrez declared war on the CNCR and the second phase of the Castillianan Insurgency began.